TProescholdThomas Pröschold

 

Present position:

Post Doc

Research area:

Ciliate ecology and taxonomy

Phone:
Fax:
e-mail:

+43 512 507-50266
+43 512 507-50299
thomas.proeschold@uibk.ac.at


Employment History · Research · Current Project · Publications · Awards


Employment History

  • Jan 2017 – present Post Doc at the Research Department for Limnology, Mondsee of the Leopold-Franzens-University of Innsbruck (LFUI) in the working group ‘Ciliate ecology and taxonomy’, within the FWF project

    Endosymbiontische Algen und deren Ciliaten-Wirte: Morphologie, Phylogenie, Ökologie (P28333-B25), PI B. Sonntag and T. Pröschold, April 2016 – March 2021

  • Sept 2015 - August 2016 University Professor for Taxonomy and Systematics of Microalgae, Universidad de Concepción, Chile

  • Feb 2015 - Dec 2016 (Guest) Scientist at the Culture Collection of Algae ("Sammlung von Algenkulturen"; SAG), University of Göttingen

  • 2014 Habilitation at the University of Vienna (A): Generic and species concepts in green algae (Chlorophyta)

  • Jul 2011–Dec 2013 Postdoc at the University Rostock (G), Department of Applied Ecology and Phycology

  • Feb 2010–Jun 2011 Postdoc at the University Vienna (A), Department of Limnology

  • Jun 2004–Okt 2009 Phycologist and Molecular biologist at the Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP) in Scotland (GB)

  • Apr 2003–Feb 2004 Postdoc at the  University of Cologne (G), Institute for Botany (DFG-project‚ Generic and species concept among the Volvocales‘)

  •  Feb 2002–Mar 2003 Postdoc at the Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island (USA), Department BioMed by Prof. Dr. Annette Coleman (two-years DFG-project; German Research Foundation)

  • Sept 1999–Dez 2001 Scientific Associate at the University of Cologne (G), Institute for Botany

  • Feb 1998–Jan 1999 Scientific Associate at the University of Göttingen (G), Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Research, Department Systematic Botany

  • Sep 1991–Sep 1994 Supporting Scientist and Scientific Associate at the  University of Göttingen (G), Institute for Plant physiology

  • Nov 1997 PhD at the University of Göttingen (G) at the Culture Collection of Algae ("Sammlung von Algenkulturen"; SAG): Gametogenesis in unicellular green algae

  • Aug 1991 Diploma at the University of Göttingen (G) at the Culture Collection of Algae ("Sammlung von Algenkulturen“; SAG): Towards oogamy in Chlamydomonas

  •  Okt 1989 Master in Botany, Mikrobiology and Physikalic Chemistry at the University of Göttingen (G)

  • Apr 1988 BSc in Botany, Mikrobiology and Anorganic and Physikalic Chemistry at the University of Göttingen (G)


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Research

My main research interests are the systematics, taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of cyanobacteria, algae and protists with special emphasis on green algae, which can be summarized under the theme: What is a species in microalgae and protists and what is their function in their habitats?

 

  • Generic and species concepts in green algae

Microalgae and protozoa (protists) are traditionally classified according to morphological and cytological characters of vegetative stages in their life cycle. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal genes (SSU and ITS rDNA sequences) have demonstrated that this morphological concept is artificial for most of microalgal genera and needs to be revised. For example, within the Volvocales, a model group for biological research, 60 genera with 2000 species have been described on the basis of phenotypic characters. The largest genus Chlamydomonas contains 800 species and is characterized by: different cell sizes and shapes, different chloroplast shapes, the number and position of pyrenoids within the chloroplast, and the position of eyespot and nucleus within the cell. However, according to phylogenetic analyses, species of the unicellular genus Chlamydomonas (Volvocales) form eight monophyletic lineages within the Chlorophyceae, in some of these “Chlamydomonas” are in the same lineage as strains belonging to other genera.

Analyses of secondary structures that compensatory base changes (CBCs) in ribosomal DNA sequences (SSU and ITS) are characteristic for genera and species and can be used for taxonomic revisions as genetic signatures. In addition, the Z-clade and CBC-clade concept based on CBCs in ITS sequences (genetic signatures) provides insights to the mating ability of species. In contrast to the biological species concept, strains of the same Z-clade form zygotes, but neither they can germinate or are able to produce fertile F1 generations. Biological species or members of the same Z-clade have identical ITS rDNA sequences. Therefore, ITS sequences are an ideal tool for evolutionary comparisons especially at the biological species level. In addition to the biological species concept, the species-specific sporangium enzymes (sporangium autolysin or VLE) may be used for classification. These enzymes are produced by zoospores for release of the sporangium cell wall and are stage-specific.

On the basis of these results the traditional genera and species were revised and new taxa were described, a process that is still in progress.

 

  • Species distribution of green algae

It is widely accepted that microbial diversity differs fundamentally from biodiversity of larger organisms. It has been assumed that free-living microbes have a cosmopolitan distribution and that most protistan organisms, smaller than 1 mm in size, have worldwide distribution wherever their required habitats are realized. This is a consequence of ubiquitous dispersal driven by huge population sizes, and consequently low probability of local extinction. Organisms larger than 10 mm are much less abundant, and rarely cosmopolitan. However, these hypotheses are only based on the phenotypic approach ("morphospecies") and depended on clear identification of the microorganisms. For microalgae this hypothesis is still controversial. Polyphasic approaches using molecular, biochemical and morphological characters have indicated that the biodiversity of microalgae might be higher than the described diversity according to the morphospecies concept.

 

 

As highlighted above the traditional generic and species concepts among protists are artificial for most of the genera and the distribution pattern of these microalgae is different from those of larger organisms. The following conclusions highlight some taxonomic conflicts of these species:

 

  • Polyphyly of traditional genera and species (morphological characters, commonly used for traditional classification, need to be evaluated for each genus and species, before being used as diagnostic characters in taxonomy.)
  • Phenotypic plasticity (abiotic and biotic factors have an influence on the morphology, which has not be taken into account for traditional classification. Moreover, the distribution pattern is dependent on the ability to adapt or acclimate to different environmental conditions.)
  • Hidden diversity (the genetic diversity within one morphospecies might be much higher than expected. The results revealed that most morphospecies contain several species, which are defined as cryptic species in the literature.)
  • Taxonomic revision of genera and species using an integrative approach (based on phylogenetic analyses traditional species and genera can be revised, and new genera and species can be described using this approach.)
  • DNA barcoding of protists (the conserved region of ITS-2 rDNA can be used as universal barcode marker and diagnostic feature for description of hidden diversity.)

 

I address these different aspects on investigations of several microalgal and protistan groups of organisms as highlighted in the list of my publications.


 

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Current Project


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Teaching

Biology and molecular phylogeny of algae and protists.


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Publications

2017

  • Darienko T., Pröschold T. (2017). Toward a monograph of non-marine Ulvophyceae using an integrative approach (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae II.). Phytotaxa 324: 1-41.

  • Albrecht M., Pröschold T., Schumann R. (2017). Identification of cyanobacteria in a eutrophic coastal lagoon on the southern Baltic coast. Frontiers in Microbiol. 8: 923.

  • Gustavs L., Schiefelbein U., Darienko T., Pröschold T. (2017). Symbioses of the green algal genera Coccomyxa and Elliptochloris (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). In Seckbach J, Grube M, Muggia L (eds): Algae and Cyanobacteria Symbioses, pp. 169-208.

2016

  • Darienko T., Gustavs L., Pröschold T (2016). Species concept and nomenclatural changes within the genera Elliptochloris and Pseudochlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) based on an integrative approach. J Phycol 52: 1125-1145.

2015

  • Darienko T., Gustavs L., Eggert A., Wolf W., Pröschold T. (2015). Evaluating the species boundaries of green microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) using integrative taxonomy and DNA barcoding with further implications for the species identification in environmental samples. PLOS One 10: e0127838.

  • Darienko T., Pröschold T. (2015). Genetic variability and taxonomic revision of the genus Auxenochlorella (Shihira et Krauss) Kalina et Puncocharova (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). J Phycol 51: 394-400.

  • Allewaert C.C., Vanormelingen P., Pröschold T., Gomez P.I., Gonzalez M.A., Bilcke G., D‘Hondt S., Vyverman W. (2015). Species diversity in European Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales). Phycologia 54: 583-598.

2014

  • Kitzing C., Pröschold T., Karsten U. (2014). UV-induced effects on growth, photosynthetic performance and sunscreen contents in different populations of the green alga Klebsormidium fluitans (Streptophyta) from alpine soil crusts. Microbial Ecol 67: 327-340.

2013

  • Karsten U., Pröschold T., Mikhailyuk T., Holzinger A. (2013). Photosynthetic performance of different genotypes of the green alga Klebsormidium sp. (Streptophyta) isolated from biological soil crusts of the Alps. Algol Stud 142: 45-62.

  • González M.A., Pröschold T., Palacios Y., Aguayo P., Inostroza I., Gómez P.I. (2013). Taxonomic identification and lipid production of two Chilean Chlorella-like strains isolated from a marine and an estuarine coastal environment. AoB Plants 5: 1-12.

2012

  • Blanc G., Agarkova I., Grimwood J., Kuo A., Brueggeman A.,Dunigan D.D., Gurnon J., Ladunga I., Lindquist E., Lucas S., Pangilinan J., Pröschold T., Salamov A., Schmutz J., Weeks D., Yamada T., Lomsadze A., Borodovsky M., Claverie J.-M., Grigoriev I.V., Van Etten J.L. (2012). The genome of the polar eukaryotic microalga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea reveals traits of cold adaptation. Genome Biol 13: R39.

  • Chen C., Barfuss M.H..J, Pröschold T., Schagerl M. (2012). Hidden genetic diversity in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta). BMC Evol Biol 12: 77.

  • Krienitz L., Bock C., Kotut K., Pröschold T. (2012). Genotypic diversity of Dictyosphaerium-morphospecies (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae) in African inland waters, including the description of four new genera. Fottea 12: 231-253.

  • Demchenko E., Mikhailyuk T., Coleman A.W., Pröschold T. (2012). Generic and species concepts in Microglena (previously the Chlamydomonas monadina group) revised using an integrative approach. Eur J Phycol 47: 264-290.

2011

  • Bock C., Krienitz L., Pröschold T. (2011). Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description of seven new species. Fottea 11: 293-312.

  • Bock C., Pröschold T., Krienitz L. (2011). Updating the genus Dictyosphaerium and description of Mucidosphaerium gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae) based on morphological and molecular data. J Phycol 47: 638-652.

  • Caisova L., Marin B., Sausen N., Pröschold T., Melkonian M. (2011). Polyphyly of Chaetophora and Stigeoclonium within the Chaetophorales (Chlorophyceae), revealed by sequence comparisons of nuclear-encoded SSU rRNA genes. J Phycol 47: 164-177.

  • Pröschold T., Darienko T., Silva P.C., Reisser W., Krienitz L. (2011). The systematics of „Zoochlorella“ revisited employing an integrative approach. Environ Microbiol 13: 350-364.

  • Krienitz L., Bock C., Dadheech P.K., Pröschold T. (2011). The Mychonastes-clade of Chlorophyceae and the dispute on conception of orders in green algae. Phycologia 50: 89-106.

2010

  • Dadheech P.K., Ballot A., Casper P., Kotut K., Novelo E., Lemma B., Pröschold T., Krienitz L. (2010). Mexican Arthrospira strains show phylogenetic divergence to strains of East African and Indian origin deduced by 16S rRNA-ITS and phycocyanin operon sequences. Phycologia 49: 361-372.

  • Bock C., Pröschold T., Krienitz L. (2010). Two new Dictyosphaerium-morphotype lineages of the Chlorellaceae (Trebouxiophyceae): Heynigia gen. nov. and Hindakia gen. nov. Eur J Phycol 45: 267-277.

  • Krienitz L., Bock C., Luo W., Pröschold T. (2010). Polyphyletic origin of the Dictyosphaerium-morphotype within Chlorellaceae (Trebouxiophyceae). J Phycol 46: 559-563.

  • Day J.G., Pröschold T., Friedl T., Lorenz M., Silva P.C. (2010). Conservation of microalgal type material: approaches needed for 21st century science. Taxon 59: 3-6.

  • Pröschold T., Bock C., Luo W., Krienitz L. (2010). Polyphyletic origin of bristle formation in Chlorellaceae: Micractinium, Didymogenes and Hegewaldia gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycol Res 58: 1-8.

  • Luo W., Pröschold T., Bock C., Krienitz, L. (2010). Generic concept in Chlorella-related coccoid green algae (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Plant Biol 12: 545-553.

  • Darienko T., Gustavs L., Mudimu O., Rad Menendez C., Schumann R., Karsten U., Friedl T., Pröschold T. (2010). Chloroidium, a common terrestrial coccoid green alga previously assigned to Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Eur J Phycol 45: 79-95.

2009

  • Darienko T., Friedl T., Pröschold T. (2009).  Desmochloris mollenhaueri - a new terrestrial ulvophycean alga from south-west African soils. (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae I.). Stud. 129: 25-40.

2008

  • Achilles-Day U.E.M., Pröschold T., Day J.G. (2008). Phylogenetic position of the freshwater ciliate Euplotes daidaleos within the family of Euplotidae, obtained from small subunit rDNA gene sequence. Denisia 23: 411-416.

  • Nakada T., Nozaki H., Pröschold T. (2008). Molecular phylogeny, ultrastructure and taxonomic revision of Chlorogonium (Chlorophyta): Emendation of Chlorogonium Ehrenberg and description of Gungnir nov. and Rusalka gen. nov. J. Phycol. 44: 751-760.

2007

  • Day J.G., Lorenz M., Wilding T.A., Friedl T., Harding K., Pröschold T., Brennan D., Müller J., Santos L.M., Santos M.F., Osorio H.C., Amaral R., Lukesova A., Hrouzek P., Lukes M., Elster J., Lukavsky J., Proberts I., Ryan M.J., Benson E.E. (2007). The use of physical and virtual infrastructures for validation of algal cryopreservation methods in international culture collections. CryoLetters 28: 359-376.

  • Gachon M.M., Day J.G., Campbell C.N., Pröschold T., Saxon R.J., Küpper F.C. (2007). The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP): A biological resource for protistan genomics. Gene 406: 51-57.

  • Amato A., Kooistra W.H.C.F., Ghiron J.H.L., Mann D.G., Pröschold T., Montresor M. (2007). Reproductive isolation among sympatric cryptic species in marine diatoms. Protist 158: 193-207.

  • Pröschold T., Silva P.C. (2007). Proposal to change the listed type of Chlamydomonas, nom. cons. (Chlorophyta). Taxon 56: 595-596.

2006

  • Luo W., Pflugmacher S., Pröschold T., Walz N., Krienitz L. (2006). Genotype versus phenotype variability in Chlorella and Micractinium (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Protist 157: 315-333.

 2005

  • Coleman A.W., Pröschold T. (2005). Control of sexual reproduction in algae in culture. In: Anderson, R.A. (ed.): Algal Culturing Techniques (Academic Press) pp. 389-397.

  •  Pröschold T., Harris E.H., Coleman A.W. (2005). Portrait of a species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 170: 1601-1610.

  • Gerloff-Elias A., Spijkerman E., Pröschold T. (2005). Effect of external pH on the growth, photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport of Chlamydomonas acidophila Negoro, isolated from an extremely acidic lake (pH 2.6). Plant Cell Environ. 28: 1218-1229.

 2004

  • Heinrichs J., Groth H., Lindner M., Renker C., Pocs T., Pröschold T. (2004). Intercontinental distribution of Plagiochila corrugata (Plagiochilaceae, Hepaticae) inferred from nr DNA ITS sequences and morphology. J. Linn. Soc. 146: 469-481.

  • Pocock T., Lachance M.-A., Pröschold T., Kim , Huner N.P.A. (2004). Identification of a psychrophilic green alga from Lake Bonney, Antarctica: Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl (UWO 241) Chlorophyceae. J. Phycol. 40: 1138-1148.

2002

  • Heinrichs J., Pröschold T., Renker C., Groth H., Rycroft D.S. (2002). Plagiochila virginica Evans rather than P. dubia Lindenb. & Gottsche occurs in Macaronesia; placement in sect. Contigue Carl is supported by ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Syst. Evol. 230: 221-230.

  • Heinrichs J., Groth H., Holz I., Rycroft D.S., Renker C., Pröschold T. (2002). The systematic position of Plagiochila moritziana, trichostoma, and P. deflexa based on ITS sequence variation of nuclear ribosomal DNA, morphology, and lipophilic secondary metabolites. Bryologist 105: 189-203.

  • Rycroft D.S., Cole W.J., Heinrichs J., Groth H., Renker C., Pröschold T. (2002). Phytochemical, morphological, and molecular evidence for the occurrence of the neotropical liverwort Plagiochila stricta in the Canary Islands, new to Macaronesia. Bryologist 105: 363-372.

  • Renker C., Heinrichs J., Pröschold T., Groth H., Holz I. (2002). ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA support the generic placement and the disjunct range of Plagiochila (Adelanthus) carringtonii. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 23: 23-29.

 2001

  • Pröschold T., Marin B., Schlösser U.G., Melkonian M.: Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). I. Emendation of Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg and Chloromonas Gobi, and description of Oogamochlamys nov. and Lobochlamys gen. nov. Protist 152 (2001): 265-300.

 

Editorial Board

Phytotaxa

 

Memberships

Phycological Society of America

British Phycological Society

German Botanical Society, Section Phycology

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