Contributions Workshop 3.2.A:
Adapting tourism destinations to changing availability of resources


ID: 110
Workshop & Poster
Carrying Capacity Analysis and Destination Development: A Case Study of Gangotri Tourists/Pilgrims’ Circuit in the Himalaya
Keywords: Tourism carrying capacity; destination development; tourists/pilgrims’ circuit; economic development; cultural heritage

Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad
Mizoram University (A Central University), India

Workshop Abstract: 

The Himalaya has numerous natural, cultural, aesthetic, and adventurer tourists/pilgrims’ destinations, which are the major source of income and employment to the local people and revenue generation to the government. Meanwhile, tourism carrying capacity of these destinations is poor and thus tourism development could not take shape. This article examines carrying capacity and destination development of the Gangotri tourists/pilgrims’ circuit, which is also known as Gangotri eco-sensitive zone. We conducted this study using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, in which we collected data on tourists/pilgrims flow, accommodation, transportation and infrastructural facilities. Primary data was collected through interview of 160 persons of eight tourists/pilgrims centres who are involved in tourism activities. Further, we employed a participatory observation method after an extensive visit of Gangotri tourisms/pilgrims circuit in January 2017. Secondary data was collected from the Uttarakhand Tourism Development Board, Dehradun (2016). We used correlation and rank method and analyzed infrastructural facilities, carrying capacity dimensions, proposed destination development model for the circuit, and observed that a sustainable tourism development may enhance economic activities such as income generation and employment augmentation as the whole circuit obtains natural, cultural, and aesthetic importance.

Poster Abstract:

The Himalaya has a profound impact on climate of the Indian sub-continent, as it greatly regulates its weather and climatic conditions. It acts as a barrier to the north and also acts as climate divider. Vast altitudinal and latitudinal differences (spatial variations) in the Himalaya regulate its climate largely. The five-dimensional landscapes – plain (Doon valley, Bhabhar and Tarai region), the Shivalik ranges (including the river valleys); the middle Himalaya, the highlands (including the Alpine pastures) and the Greater Himalaya form it. Landscape varies with increasing degree of altitudes and latitudes. Temporal variations and slope aspects further regulate the Himalayan climate. Thus, the landscape, seasons and slope aspects are the major drivers that regulate the climate and divide the whole land into several micro-climatic regions. The Himalaya has three major seasons – summer, monsoon and winter, and six minor seasons – spring, summer, rainy, autumn, pre-winter and winter. Climate varies along with changing seasons at micro level. Because of the high variations in the landscape, the impact of seasons is different at different altitudes. This poster deals with the study of the climate of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. I have analyzed climate data – temperature, rainfall and humidity of the two meteorological stations – Dehradun and Mukteshwar and have presented them graphically. A large part of literature review is well documented/cited.


ID: 194
Workshop & Poster
Skiing area development and sustainability issues in Romanian Carpathians
Keywords: skiing areas development, skiing areas sustainability, Romanian Carpathians, climate change, changing mountain environment

Mihai, Bogdan-Andrei; Teodor, Mădălina; Săvulescu, Ionut; Dobre, Robert; Vîrghileanu, Marina; Olariu, Bogdan
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Romania  

Workshop and Poster Abstract: 

After 2007, Romanian Carpathians features an increasing development of the skiing areas, outside the traditional ski resorts. This is the result of the emerging interest of the real-estate market investors in mountain areas with natural potential and an improving road accessibility. The biggest part of funding comes from EU financed projects. Nowadays, there are 92 skiing areas counting 265 ski slopes, with a total length of 257 km and a total surface of 16 sq. km (Teodor, 2017). Most of them are built with high environmental and infrastructure costs on low to medium mountains slopes. A statistic survey shows that 83 skiing areas out of 92 are built between 800 to 1500 m, while 49 are at altitudes lower than 1000 m.

The aim of our study is to evaluate the degree of sustainability of these new developments for the Romanian Carpathian region in the context of climate change. Our analysis is based on decadal climatic data, represented by temperature and snowpack duration measured on weather stations from the entire Romanian Carpathians region, for the 2007-2018 reference period. For this reason, we propose a three complementary case study approach. These are used for the evaluation of the sustainability degree as a balance between the minimum number of active skiing days per skiing area in the context of the cost recovery of investment, according to the initial project of development and the average snowpack duration within the official skiing season.

The current study shows the vulnerability degree of the skiing areas from the Romanian Carpathians as investments in a changing mountain environment on different altitude levels. The results are compared with the current climate change regional issues, in order to obtain the sustainability of these developments.


Teodor, Mădălina (2017) Proiectarea, dezvoltarea și managementul domeniilor schiabile din România, Editura Universitară, București.


ID: 229 
Workshop & Poster
Decrease of a natural resource: Evolution of glacier tourism in a context of climate change
Keywords: Adaptation, resources, climate change, glacier, tourism

Salim, Emmanuel1,2; Gauchon, Christophe1,2; Ravanel, Ludovic1,2; Deline, Philip1,2
1Edytem, CNRS; 2Université Savoie Mont-Blanc 

Workshop Abstract: 

Mean air temperature is rising faster in the Alps than at a global scale (Einhorn et al., 2015). This generates many issues in mountain areas, especially for the cryosphere (Beniston et al., 2018). In the Mont Blanc massif for instance, permafrost is warming, that increases rocks fall hazard (Magnin et al., 2017; Ravanel et al., 2017). At the same time, glacier shrinkage accelerates (Berger et al., 2017; Zemp et al., 2015). At the Mer de Glace, the largest French glacier, thickness decreased by 166 m from 1890 to 2013 (GLACIOCLIM Data). The Mer de Glace is a major touristic attraction in the French Alps as more than half a million of people comes to see it each year, using the Montenvers cogwheel train. In summer, they do different activities: mostly seeseighting with the panoramic platforms but also mountaineering with five huts reachable from the glacier tongue, visiting the museum about glaciers (the “Glaciorium”) and the ice cave. Nevertheless, the frequentation is decreasing from 1.1 million in 1998 to 770 015 in 2017 (Savoie-Mont-Blanc-Tourisme data, 2017), while access to the glacier becomes more difficult for the alpinists (Mourey and Ravanel, 2017) and aesthetic value decreases. This phenomenon develops all around the world: access to the Tasman, Fox and Franz Joseph glaciers (New Zealand) becomes harder and harder (Espiner and Becken, 2014; Purdie, 2013), the aesthetic value of the landscape around the Baishui glacier in China decreases (Wang et al., 2010), and all those issues are also impacting the European Alps (Moreau, 2010; Garavaglia et al., 2012;). Glacier retreat is thus questioning an important economic resource for glacier-related tourism. In this context, our research aims to understand how glacier tourism is changing according to the evolution of the natural resource and to improve stakeholder resource management in a way of resilience.

Poster Abstract:

How Climate Change is Driving Adaptation of the Glacier Tourism Destinations: A Synthetic state of knowledge

Alpine glacier shrinkage is one of the most visible impacts of climate change around the world (Roe et al., 2017). Since several centuries, glaciers have been appropriated by societies for their aesthetic, economic or also scientific values (Gagné et al., 2014). Since 1741 and the first visit of the Mer de Glace in Chamonix (Mont Blanc massif, Alps) by Windham and Pococke, glacier tourism developed all over the world. In New Zealand, glacier natural resources brings every year more than 700 000 tourists (Purdie, 2013). 300 000 tourists visit each year the Briskal glacier in Norway (Furunes and Mykletun, 2012), and 1.9 million persons come every year in China to Yulong Snow Mountain where 80 % enjoy seeing the Baishui Glacier N°1 (Wang et al., 2010). In France, more than 770 000 tourists take the Montenvers cogwheel train every year to visit the Mer de Glace (Savoie-Mont-Blanc-Tourisme Data, 2017). This tourism industry shows how glacier is a major economic resource for territories, today threatened by climate change. Through a Systematic Quantitative Literature Review (Pickering and Byrne, 2014), the aim of this poster is to show a synthetic view of how climate change is impacting glacier tourism destinations and how stakeholders are responding and adapting accordingly.


ID: 239
Workshop & Poster
The implementation of Climate Change Provisions in French Territories
Keywords: Urban planning ; ski resort ; spatial scales ; capacity of adaption

Bonnemains, Anouk1; Moulin, Sabine2
1Université dSavoie Mont Blanc, France; 2Université Savoie Mont Blanc, France

Workshop Abstract:

France is one of few countries to give particular legal protection to its mountainous regions against the effects of climate change (Beerens-Bettex, 2017). It was a pioneer country setting territorial law for mountain areas in 1985 intending to balance « development and conservation » (A. Villeneuve, A. Castelein and al.,2002, p. 12). This law was modified in 2016. One of its modifications is that tourist developments are now required to consider « the vulnerability of mountainous areas to climate change » (article L. 122-15 of the “Code de l’urbanisme”). Here we examine the implementation of this provision into local rules, and its impacts on territories, from the dual perspective of a lawyer and a geographer.

Urban planning integrates different sectoral policies across different scales. As such, it is one of the main local tools allowing authorities to adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change in an iterative manner. Therefore we question urban plan developments at different spatial scales (municipalities’ plans, intermunicipalities’ plans and territorial coherence programs), as well as contexts (high and medium mountain areas) and development models.

We choose three case studies in the Northern Alps : the local urban plan of Villard-de-Lans, a medium-size ski resort located in Vercors regional park ; the intermunicipality plan of Cœur de Chartreuse, a collection of small ski resorts reorientating their tourist activities ; and territorial coherence program of Tarentaise-Vanoise known for its high altitude ski resorts.

This analysis shows how a climate change law is implemented and the capacity of local authorities to adapt and transform their territories to limit climate change impacts


ID: 289
Workshop & Poster
Developing sustainable tourism products for Mediterranean hinterland areas
Keywords: sustainable tourism products, ecojourneys, network approach, hinterland areas, Mediterranean mountains

Zapounidis, Konstantinos1; Sancho Reinoso, Alexis2; Partzalidou, Parthena1; Serrat Mulà, Ramon2
1Pieriki Anaptixiaki S.A.-O.L.A., Greece; 2CETT-University of Barcelona

Workshop and Poster Abstract:

Being established in 2013, the EMM (Emblematic Mediterranean Mountains) Network consists of nine complex living mountains located around the Mediterranean Sea. All these areas share a common challenge (facing unbalanced tourist flow concentrations) and –more important- their willingness to propose a new positioning for their tourism development policy. Since 2016, these mountain areas are working together in project EMbleMatiC (Emblematic Mountains as Coastal Destinations of Excellence) of the Interreg MED Programme (project co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund), focusing on 3 objectives: (i) preserving patrimonial values from endogenous and exogenous threats; (ii) sharing positive experiences and good practices; and (iii) increasing international recognition. The project can be summarised in three steps:

1. To identify those aspects that can be understood as “emblematic” of the involved areas, i.e. those issues that can distinguish them from other territories. To define a series of common criteria to be fulfilled for future network members.

2. To design testing actions in which nine ecojourneys (which have previously been conceived hand in hand with local stakeholders) are going to be implemented on the field. The ecojourneys are based on 30 common attributes that are related to (i) their basic characteristics, (ii) their associated services, (iii) ethics and sustainability issues, (iv) management and governance, and (v) marketing strategies.

3. To build up a transferring plan that will gather the results of a series of discussion sessions with local stakeholders (establishment owners, elected representatives, local tourism councils, local population) in order to provide a practical tool to other mountain areas experiencing similar dynamics.

While the results of the testing and transferring actions will finish only at the end of the project (October 2019), during the IMC, we will be able to bring most of the results from the project.


ID: 306
Workshop & Poster
The Misrepresentation of Climate Change Risk in the Ski Industry
Keywords: climate change, skiing, tourism, snow resources, adaptation

Scott, Daniel1; Steiger, Robert2; Knowles, Natalie1
1University of Waterloo, Canada; 2University of Innsbruck, Austria 

Workshop Abstract: 

Ski tourism is a multi-billion dollar international market with important contributions to the economies of mountain communities around the world. The impact of climate change on snow resources (natural and the capacity for snowmaking) will have far-reaching implications for the competitiveness of ski tourism destinations. The need for foresight on differential climate change risk continues to grow as investors and financial regulators increasingly require climate risk disclosure, and businesses and destination communities develop adaptation plans for the new realities of ski tourism in a warmer world. A critical model inter-comparison in New England and the Midwest (USA) is used to demonstrate how misinformation from studies with important methodological limitations (e.g., do not account for snowmaking, which covers over 75% of skiable terrain in these regions) continue to misrepresent the climate change risk of the ski industry in many regional markets. This misinformation is often perpetuated in the media and poses an obstacle to effective, science-based climate change adaptation.


ID: 309
Workshop & Poster
Mountain huts: laboratories for environmental and cultural change. The transdisciplinary approach of the "Sentinel mountain huts" research program in Écrins National Park (France)
Keywords: Tourism destination, Mountain hut, Adaptations, Transformations

Marcuzzi, Mélanie1; Bourdeau, Philippe1; Dentant, Cédric2; Charron, Julien2; Bonet, Richard2
1Université Grenoble-Alpes, UMR PACTE, LabEx ITEM, France; 2Parc national des Écrins, France 

Workshop and Poster Abstract: 

Mountain huts (150 in the French Alps, 35 in the Écrins massif) are favourable (perfect?) observatories of the cross effects of environmental and cultural changes. The public they host and sports and tourism activities to which they give access are renewing, as their leading role in regional tourism is strengthening. Beyond their function as accommodation, they become full-fledged destinations over seasons, in line with changing climatic conditions. This adaptation takes place thanks to the reception of a wider audience and the development of mediation and animation skills by hut-keepers, who use a full range of resources from landscape environment, nature experience, mountain initiation and cultural transmission: exhibitions, artists' residencies, concerts and balls, school visits, scientific tourism, well-being and contemplation...

Since 2017, the environmental and cultural transformations of mountain huts are monitored by the "Sentinel huts" research program, developed by the Écrins National Park and the Labex Innovation & TErritoires de Montagne to boost scientific research in high mountains. Based on cross-questions between environmental and social sciences, it aims to develop suitable methodologies for carrying out long term research from a panel of mountain huts, in close collaboration with local communities, protected areas and professional operators.

The main research topics are related to tourism and sports, meteorology and climate, biodiversity, geomorphology, risks and safety, based on quantitative and qualitative surveys and data collection, participatory observations, photo-reports and collaborative workshops. The results are intended to be used in the scientific field, as well as in tourism engineering, professional training and environmental education.

While mountain huts can be considered as laboratories for diversification and tourism transition, the challenge of observing their reorientation of status and functions is to contribute to the identification of transition paths (Geels & Schot, 2007) for mountain regions, in which niche innovations help to structure new development models.


ID: 334
Workshop & Poster
Development paths of alpine glacier ski areas: Beware of climatic resource determinism
Keywords: glacier ski areas; climate change; adaptation; development path; resources

Mayer, Marius1; Abegg, Bruno2
1University of Greifswald, Germany; 2University of St. Gallen, Switzerland 

Workshop and Poster Abstract: 

Glacier ski areas (GSA) have always been controversial. Their public perception varied between optimistic symbols of progress and human feasibility in severe and extreme locations, the culmination point of nature’s destruction for leisure purposes, the last resort of snow reliability for ski tourism in times of climate change but also the first victim of climate change as summer skiing had to be shut down in most resorts in the last three decades. Irrespective of these discourses many of these GSA are among the most successful alpine tourism destinations, due to their high snow reliability and slope quality, but also their spectacular landscapes also attracting non-skiers. However, on the contrary, there are also a number of shut-down GSA in the Alps, partly situated in high altitudes usually associated with high snow reliability and thus profitability.

Therefore, this contribution aims at presenting the differing and partly contradictory development paths of alpine GSA since their emergence in the post-war ski tourism boom phase. We show the spatio-temporal diffusion patterns of GSA in the Alps along with their seasonal shift from summer only over year-round to extended winter seasons with regard to regional variations.

However, there does not seem to exist a linear relationship between climate change impacts like shrinking glaciers and the development of GSA: the impacts of glacier shrinkage on their tourism use are not only negative as snow reliability might decrease even further in lower altitude resorts and the installation of high capacity ski lifts offering higher transport quality becomes possible. Furthermore, it depends on the operators’ monetary and knowledge resources, their level of experience how to deal with and to adapt to these changing natural conditions. Empirical examples show that there are various ways with differing success which could be chosen by the operators.


ID: 420
Workshop & Poster
Tourism diversification in mid-mountain territories as a way to adapt to climate change
Keywords: Tourism, Mid-mountain, Adaptation, Climate Change, Diversification

ROUCH, Laura
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Irstea, LESSEM, UMR-Territoires, France 

Workshop and Poster Abstract: 

Climate change is a global and gradual phenomenon first impacting areas vulnerable to temperatures changes, such as mid-mountain territories (Pachauri et al., 2014, Beniston, 2003). Higher temperatures induce the melt of ice and snow in mountain areas and have direct impacts on the local biodiversity and human dynamics, and more specifically, on the winter sports and tourism economy (Richard et al., 2010). Thus, this economy structured (Veyret-Verner, 1959), and still structure (Nepal and Chipeniuk, 2005, Marcelpoil and François, 2008) mid-mountain territories. This situation creates an imbalance that leads to several way of adaptation (Abegg et al., 2007), like improving snowmaking technologies (Spandre et al., 2015) or diversify the local economy and the touristic offer (Achin, 2015). Considering the second option, local economic diversification and broaden tourism offering tend to question this path dependency around snow and ski, helping the territories to be more resilient to snow melting and raising reflections about territorial development trajectories and governance (Luthe et al., 2012). Touristic offer diversification is inherent to historical tourism development in mountain areas (Perret, 1992), and first came from individual initiatives. It gradually entered in the local planning processes and, since the 21st century in France, it is supported by public policies (Vlès, 2006, Achin, 2015). In this way, touristic diversification seems to be a sustainable and inclusive way to adapt to climate change. However, because of its (1) interconnection with other economic sectors, (2) the dependence to ski industry economic resources, (3) the question of its spatial and temporal scales, and (4) the local tourism actors’ doubts on diversification results, territorial players appear to need a support on their adaptation strategies’ design. To do so, this research project[1] focuses on delivering tools and references on adaptation to climate change and touristic diversification’s transformational capability by studying diversification’s economic, social and territorial benefits; taking the examples and working in collaboration with the Haut Chablais and Massif du Sancy territories in France.

[1] The Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region bring a financial assistance to the AMORCE (Tourism and Mountain territories Adaptation to Climate Change) research project, within the AMI Pack Ambition


ID: 444
Workshop & Poster
Mountain Resident’s livelihoods: Adaptation strategies in the swiftly progressing ‘weather’ of Tourism in Urbanized Protected Areas
Keywords: protected areas; sustainable tourism; livelihood

Gugushvili, Temur
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia 

Workshop Abstract: 

Protected Areas play a pivotal role in tourism development, which in itself creates vital economic opportunities for local communities in terms of fresh livelihood activities. Importantly, in most mountain regions worldwide, locals have limited possibilities to generate income; therefore, delivering mountain protected areas as sustainable tourism destinations are seen as a source of employment and additional economic benefits. It appears straightforward, but protected areas may also trigger disorganization in traditional economic performances of local residents, living in or at the edge of PA.

Georgia faced rapid development of protected areas and their coverage in short stretch of times in remote and mountain areas; therefore, this fact through ambivalent peculiarities of protected areas calls into question the resilience of locals in the process of adaptation of sustainable livelihood related to direct/indirect tourism-based activities. In such terms, to address the described phenomenon, the presented research applies rural sustainable livelihood concept (Chambers & Conway, 1991). In order to validate the discussion, in the paper, great emphasis is placed on empirical information analysis gathered through the in-depth interviews and focus groups with local dwellers.

The collected qualitative information was processed and analyzed using a combination of type-building and quantitizing approaches with help computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.

The following initial findings have emerged:

Economic/financial capital – private infrastructure (locals use their own houses to develop guesthouses), lands to cultivate agricultural products and serve to tourists; local and international grants to promote tourism business development;

Social capital – connections to tour operators, taxi drivers, tourism administration in Batumi as well as authorities of Machakhela National Park plays a crucial role to attract tourists;

Human capital – high-experience in cooking local traditional dishes; familiarity of the available natural and cultural sights, basic skills to serve tourists in a proper way shapes competitive-advantages of the particular guesthouses.


ID: 143 
Specific Research Poster
Impact of snowmaking on stream flows in the Krkonoše Mountain
Keywords: snowmaking, discharge, water use, climate change

Treml, Pave
T.G. Masaryk Water Research Institute, public research institution, Czech Republic

Poster Abstract: 

The paper analyses effects of snowmaking on stream flows from 22 small river watersheds, which include different physical-geographic characteristics in the Krkonoše Mountains in the North of Bohemia. Some of watersheds represent natural areas, while other represent significant anthropogenic influence. Thanks to this mix of different conditions, the impact of snowmaking can be analysed in detail both in terms of a decrease in flow rates during water consumption, and of an increase in runoff during snow melting. The impact on groundwater is also studied.

Changes of runoff are observed directly by continuous measurement, and indirectly by mathematical modelling. In the monitored area changes of soil properties are compared: at snow-covered slopes and non snow-covered slopes, and also out of slopes.

Based on the project findings various measures are recommended, which should eliminate negative effects of snowmaking on the natural environment.


ID: 152 
Specific Research Poster
Sustainable Development of Mountain Resorts – Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Options and Necessity for Replanning in Serbian Mountains
Keywords: mountain resorts, climate change, tourism, replanning

Milijic, Sasa; Pantic, Marijana; Josimovic, Bosko; Bezbradica, Ljubisa
Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Serbia

Poster Abstract:

An integrated approach in spatial and environmental planning in European countries is one of the leading principles when it comes to development strategies. The approach is embedded in the institutional-organizational models that strive to coordinate multiple roles of planning (economic, environmental and social) and to approach closer to the territorial cohesion, particularly on vulnerable territories such as mountains and nature protected areas. The Alpine region is one of the most comprehensively analysed mountain areas in Europe, including research topics such as mountain resorts in a context of climate change and nature preservation.

Following this context, the poster aims to present several tourism resorts positioned in nature protected areas of Serbia. A trajectory of their development through time will be considered in light of their relation to climate change: climate change impact on tourism resorts, but also mitigation and adaptation measures taken in order to decrease development impacts on the environment through replanning activities. It is also expected to accentuate the way planning for mountain areas aims to consolidate conflicts between development and environmental protection/preservation, and how far planers have succeeded in it using legislative and spatial plans as tools. In conclusion, the analysis of few mountain tourism centres of national and international importance (e.g. Kopaonik, Stara Planina, Brezovica) will showcase recommendations for improved balancing between development and preservation according to international norms (e.g. IUCN), understanding on capacities of a particular space and an extent to which the capacities should be used in order to provide not only tourism development but also decent life quality for the local population.


ID: 230 
Specific Research Poster
How Climate Change is Driving Adaptation of the Glacier Tourism Destinations: A Synthetic state of knowledge
Keywords: Adaptation, resources, climate change, glacier, tourism

Salim, Emmanuel1,2; Gauchon, Christophe1,2; Ravanel, Ludovic1,2; Deline, Philip1,2
1Edytem, CNRS, France; 2Université Savoie Mont-Blanc

Poster Abstract:

Alpine glacier shrinkage is one of the most visible impacts of climate change around the world (Roe et al., 2017). Since several centuries, glaciers have been appropriated by societies for their aesthetic, economic or also scientific values (Gagné et al., 2014). Since 1741 and the first visit of the Mer de Glace in Chamonix (Mont Blanc massif, Alps) by Windham and Pococke, glacier tourism developed all over the world. In New Zealand, glacier natural resources brings every year more than 700 000 tourists (Purdie, 2013). 300 000 tourists visit each year the Briskal glacier in Norway (Furunes and Mykletun, 2012), and 1.9 million persons come every year in China to Yulong Snow Mountain where 80 % enjoy seeing the Baishui Glacier N°1 (Wang et al., 2010). In France, more than 770 000 tourists take the Montenvers cogwheel train every year to visit the Mer de Glace (Savoie-Mont-Blanc-Tourisme Data, 2017). This tourism industry shows how glacier is a major economic resource for territories, today threatened by climate change. Through a Systematic Quantitative Literature Review (Pickering and Byrne, 2014), the aim of this poster is to show a synthetic view of how climate change is impacting glacier tourism destinations and how stakeholders are responding and adapting accordingly.


ID: 258
Specific Research Poster
Transforming Tourism in the High Atlas Mountain: A Case Study of Tourist Production and Consumption in Zawiya Ahansal, Morocco
Keywords: Tamazight, tourism, High Atlas, Morocco

Walker, Scott Leston
Northwest Vista College, United States of America

Poster Abstract:

Volunteer, cultural, heritage, and mountain tourism all have well established, rich bodies of literature. Similarly, the notion of study abroad has a thorough body of literature. Likewise, situating tourism research in the “experience economy” is well grounded, as are notions of tourism in terms of consumption and production on a variety of levels.

Research related to the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco is thorough, yet predominantly related to geology. Tourism-specific research in the High Atlas Mountains focuses primarily on areas near Morocco’s highest peak, Jbel Toubkal.

In contrast, this poster focuses on a unique case of multi-form tourism in the little studied Zawiya Ahansal Valley, Azilal, Morocco, in the High Atlas northeast of Marrakech. There students act as producers of traditional cultural heritage, producers of an intentional shifting culture in the form of English language education, while simultaneously acting as consumers of nature and indigenous culture.

Through the Atlas Cultural Foundation (ACF), students from Europe and the United States visit the Zawiya Ahansal Valley to participate in a variety of service learning projects in the context of the valley’s unique inter-organizational structure between the ACF and Amezray SMNID, a locally operated NGO. ACF and SMNID board members meet regularly to review goals, projects, and programs. In terms of production, the ACF recruits students to participate in joint ACF/SMNID projects to improve local quality of life through community health projects, education, and cultural heritage preservation in the form of labor assistance restoring historic fortified granaries. Students provide labor in an organic demonstration garden and in the construction of bus stops and a communal clothes washing facility. From a consumption/experience perspective, students concurrently participate in the study of fundamental Moroccan Arabic and Tamazight (Amazigh language), as well as trekking to visit unique local fluvial and geomorphic landforms within the valley.


ID: 293 
Specific Research Poster
Swedish Ski Tourism and Climate Change: Agent-Based Modelling with Discrete Choice Experiment, the Ski Climate Index and Geographical Information Systems
Keywords: ski tourism, climate change, rebound effects, Sweden

Demiroglu, O. Cenk1; Steiger, Robert2; Pons, Marc3; Chihaya da Silva, Guilherme Kenjy1; Strömgren, Magnus1; Aall, Carlo4
1Umeå University, Sweden; 2University of Innsbruck, Austria; 3Observatory for the Sustainability of Andorra; 4Western Norway Research Institute

Poster Abstract:

One main goal of sustainability is climate action, which is determined by the United Nations as one that encourages climate resilience and mitigating emissions. Sweden is a leading country to follow this global agenda with major efforts on decarbonization and adaptation. For these purposes, however, detailed analyses are required to assess the trajectories by and the impacts on various sectors. Regarding tourism, which is a main sector of the Swedish economy that significantly fosters regional development, not much scientific foundation has been laid so far. This is especially true for the highly climate-dependent ski tourism sub-sector, albeit Sweden is among the top players of the global ski market, following a growth trend unlike many other conventional destinations. This study aims for a detailed assessment on the vulnerability of Swedish ski tourism to climate change and its implications and consequences for resilience building and mitigation efforts by pursuing an interdisciplinary methodology that employs and combines discrete choice experiment, geographical information systems, agent-based modelling and the newly proposed Ski Climate Index. The specific research questions are; (1) “how exposed are the existing and the potential ski areas in Sweden to climate change?”, (2) “how sensitive and adaptive is the Swedish ski tourism market to climate change?”, and (3) “what are the potential risks of increased emissions due to adaptation efforts of the Swedish ski tourism sector as well as any counterproductivity associated with further introduction of mitigation policies, and what measures could be taken to avoid any increase in such ‘rebound’ effects?”. In this respect, the results are expected to provide the stakeholders with a thorough agenda for adaptation that takes account of its interrelationship with mitigation and to contribute to literature with the interdisciplinary methodology and the geographical scope. Implications for the Nordic and the global scales are further discussed.


ID: 328
Specific Research Poster
The importance and potential of forests for tourism – A case study on Larix decidua in an inner-Alpine mountain region
Keywords: forest, tourism, Larix decidua, cultural landscape, recreational function

Langmaier, Magdalena1,2; Hochbichler, Eduard2; FRITZ, Klaus3; Payrhuber, Andrea4,5
1BFW Wien, Österreich; 2Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Österreich; 3FH Wien der WKW, Österreich; 4Universität Wien, Österreich; 5Hochschule für Agrar- und Umweltpädagogik, Österreich

Poster Abstract:

The development of rural tourism is closely linked to the recreation function of the forest and the provision of forest services for recreational use.

Due to the high share of forest cover in Austria (about 50 %), Austria features a large number of such “natural” recreational areas. In rural regions, they are regularly utilized for tourist activities such as hiking or mountain biking. This tourist activity is often given greater priority than the health of the forests themselves, however: forests become a mere scene for tourism, a landscape that is taken for granted because it is available in abundance. If the forest itself is made the focus of attention, only special tree species are promoted. For example species such as Swiss stone pine are particularly highlighted and well known, while others such as Larch often receive little attention in connection with recreational purposes and landscape aesthetics values. An example of a region rich in forests and larch trees is the district of Murau in Styria. In this area, there is an ongoing project to promote Larch in mixed stands i) to improve diversity and resilience of forests, ii) to make forests and Larch a more central concern in tourism considerations and iii) to use this potential for tourism. Therefore a quantitative survey was carried out in various hiking areas of the region using a questionnaire. The survey took both tourism and forestry aspects into account.

Of particular interest was the question how the varied larch cultural landscape in the region affects day trippers (locals, excursion guests) and multi-day tourists. In addition, general questions were asked on the topics of forests and recreation as well as on touristic use of forest areas.


ID: 626 
Specific Research Poster
Tourism and recreational impacts in mountain areas: Visitor’s perceptions in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonian Andes, Argentina
Keywords: recreation impacts, tourism, visitors perceptions, protected areas

Hernando Jimenez, ANA; Barros, Agustina; Rossi, Sebastian Dario
Conicet, Argentine Republic

Poster Abstract:

Along with images of dense forests, glaciers and lakes, around 1000 thousand visitors per year visit Nahuel Huapi National Park (NHNP) in search of experiences in the Patagonian Andes. The Park (750.000ha) is the oldest national protected area in South America and the most popular in the region. It is located next to San Carlos de Bariloche city, a popular tourism destination in the region. Most of the images promoting tourism in this city represent the natural landscapes of the Park. Common impacts in the city includes water pollution, deforestation and fragmentation due to urbanization pressure and lack of environmental policies to regulate tourism use. Environmental impacts also go beyond city boundaries, due to the increase of popularity and unregulated use of trails in the Park which result in trail degradation, vegetation and soil loss. To better understand how visitors live and experience this issue, perceptions of environmental impacts on trails were assessed at 3 emblematic visitor´s locations in the Park of high conservation value and with different levels of use: Challhuaco, Frey Refuge and Gutierrez Lake. An on-site visitor survey was conducted during the high season in January 2018. Visual simulations of different level of impacts on trails were used to explore visitor’s degree of acceptability. Results show that most respondents accept environmental impacts on trails, highlighting its physical and biological components or landscape beauty and emotions. In Challhuaco area, respondents found strongly unacceptable having nature experiences in very high-degraded trails while Frey refuge or Gutierrez lake respondents considered this mildly unacceptable. This fact relates to factors such as previous experiences in the area or visitor´s place of origin. Very few respondents considered high levels of impacts mainly due to difficulty to walk and safety. These findings support previous research showing that visitors are more concerned on risk and safety factors rather than environmental degradation.

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