Božo Frajman

“I study the evolution and diversification of different groups of flowering plants with geographic focus on the Alps, Balkan Peninsula and Mediterranean Basin. I am especially interested in processes that contributed to diversification of Euphorbia, which is one of the largest genera of angiosperms, but also in polyploid evolution. Using an array of complementary methods ranging from morphometry and cytogenetics over ecological assessments to phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses of DNA sequences I disentangle relationships within and among species, resulting in integrative taxonomic delineations. Since I obtained habilitation (venia docendi) in 2016 I am associate professor at the University of Innsbruck.”


  • Same same but different? Cryptic evolution and diversification of Luzula sect. Luzula in the grasslands of the Eastern Alps (LUZALP), Euregio, 2022–2025. 
  • Simple flowers in complex inflorescences: evolution and diversity of flowers and cyathial inflorescences in Euphorbia sect. Patellares and Myrsiniteae. Austrian Academy of Sciences; 2018–2022.
  • Immigration history of the steppe species Euphorbia segueriana in inner-Alpine dry valleys and its phylogenetic position within Euphorbia sect. Pithyusa. – Tiroler Wissenschaftsfond; 2015–2018.
  • Several bilateral projects dealing with the diversification of Euphorbia and other plant groups, mainly from the Balkan Peninsula

Selected publications

  • Frajman B., Oxelman B. (2007) Reticulate phylogenetics and phytogeographical structure of Heliosperma (Sileneae, Caryophyllaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 140–155.
  • Frajman B., Eggens F., Oxelman B. (2009) Hybrid origins and homoploid reticulate evolution within Heliosperma (Sileneae, Caryophyllaceae)-a multigene phylogenetic approach with relative dating. Systematic Biology 58: 328–345.
  • Frajman B., Rešetnik I., Niketić M., Ehrendorfer F., Schönswetter P. (2016) Patterns of rapid diversification in heteroploid Knautia sect. Trichera (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacoideae), one of the most intricate taxa of the European flora. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16: 204.
  • Frajman B., Záveská E., Gamisch A., Moser T., The STEPPE Consortium, Schönswetter P. (2019) Integrating phylogenomics, phylogenetics, morphometrics, relative genome size and ecological niche modelling disentangles the diversification of Eurasian Euphorbia seguieriana s. l. (Euphorbiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 134: 238–252.
  • Đurović S. Z., Temunović M., Niketić M., Tomović G., Schönswetter P., Frajman B. (2021) Impact of Quaternary climatic oscillations on phylogeographic patterns of three habitat-segregated Cerastium taxa endemic to the Dinaric Alps. Journal of Biogeography 28: 2022–2036.

All publications ORCID Research Gate Google Scholar

Described taxa

  • Alyssum neglectum Magauer, Frajman & Schönsw. (2014) ♦ Euphorbia lemesiana Hadjik., Hand, Christodoulou & Frajman (2015) ♦ Sorbus bosniaca Hajrud., Frajman, Schönsw. & Bogunić (2015) ♦ Euphorbia seguieriana subsp. armeniaca Frajman (2018) ♦ Ranunculus bertisceus Kuzmanović, D.Lakušić, Frajman & Schönsw.

Additional research achievements

Community services

  • Associate editor for Botanical journal of the Linnean Society and Plant Biosystems; guest editor for Frontiers in Plant sciences
  • Reviewer for various journals and funding agencies

All research achievements


  • Plant biodiversity
  • Plant identification
  • Botanical excursions to the Eastern Alps and other areas
  • Biogeography
  • Evolution
  • Methods in systematics and evolutionary research


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