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Colloquium On Violence & Religion



COV&R-Bulletin No. 1 (Sept. 1991)


The rationale for and goals of "The Bulletin of the Colloquium on Violence & Religion"

Both interest in René Girard's theory and coming to terms with it have markedly increased in recent years. In an everincreasing number of places worldwide, scholars have begun to occupy themselves with Girard's theory. This growing interest in his theory is also to be noted in the academic disciplines where Girard's hypothesis has found a hearing. This spread of the academic discussion of Girard's theory beyond geographic, linguistic and disciplinary boundaries makes an overview of such developments ever more difficult to attain. The literature alone which has arisen in response to his theory can no longer be mastered by any single scholar. Ever more frequently, important publications which have appeared or are appearing come to one's attention by pure chance through personal contacts. This situation makes both understandable and necessary a forum for and an organ of improved communication. Contacts can then be established between scholars interested in Girard's theory, thereby improving the flow of information.

One year ago, an academic forum ("The Colloquium on Violence & Religion") was founded in the U.S.A. This Forum has as its primary goal the further development, critical appraisal, and application of Girard's theory in regards to the relationship between religion and violence. "To explore, criticize, and develop the mimetic model of the relationship between violence and religion in the genesis and maintenance of culture. The Colloquium will be concerned with questions of both research and application. Scholars from various fields and diverse theoretical orientations will be encouraged to participate both in the conferences and the publications sponsored by the Colloquium, but the focus of activity will be the relevance of the mimetic model for the study of religion." (Art. II of the COV&R constitution) While this Forum is to be, in principle, open to all scholars of even the most diverse academic disciplines, it will nevertheless find its focal point within the domain of the disciplines of religious studies and theology. One of the goals of this Forum is to expedite the greatly needed communication between scholars of the most diverse disciplines who are interested in Girard's theory. In addition to regularly scheduled meetings, the Bulletin itself ("The Bulletin of the Colloquium on Violence & Religion") will appear twice yearly.

What will be the content of this Bulletin?

1) First of all, information about literature concerning the theory of Girard will be made available in the following ways:

* An ongoing bibliography of the literature, which has to do with the theory of René Girard (presentations, criticisms, applications, and further developments).

[This bibliography will be at the same time stored in a data bank of the School of Theology of the University of Innsbruck. This data bank will soon be made "accessible on-line."]

* Reviews of significant books and articles (maximum length: 2-3 pages).

* Abstracts concerning significant books and articles (maximum length: 1/2 page).

* Brief references to recently published books with the publisher's address (This should make ordering such books more convenient).

2) In addition to information about the literature, information about and from significant meetings and symposia will also be offerred:

* References and invitations to meetings and symposia.

* Call for papers.

* Brief summaries of oral reports (maximum length: 2-3 pages).

* Abstracts of orals reports held at meetings and symposia.

* Address lists of participants.

How should such information be gathered for "The Bulletin of the COV&R"?

In order that "The Bulletin of the Colloquium on Violence & Religion" can effectively establish a flow of information between scholars of diverse academic disciplines, this information will have to be gathered together. All interested readers of the Bulletin are thus requested to send information concerning all relevant literature and meetings to the editorial office of the Bulletin. All contributions should be, if possible, written in English.

How can one subscribe to "The Bulletin of the Colloquium on Violence & Religion"?

"The Bulletin of the Colloquium on Violence & Religion" is the internal organ of communication of "The Colloquium on Violence & Religion" and will be sent to its members free of charge. Membership ($30.00 annual fee; $15.00 for matriculated students) can be obtained by filling out the form on p. 11 and sending a check or money order to:


c/o P.O. Box 925

Sonoma CA 95476


European colleagues should return their membership forms and send a check or money order to:


c/o Institut für Dogmatik

Karl-Rahner-Platz 3

A-6020 Innsbruck


Konto Nr.: 850-184-365 (Österreichische Länderbank BLZ 12850)

For further information about COV&R write to:

James G. Williams.

Wolfgang Palaver - James G. Williams


Bibliography of the Secondary Literature to René Girard

1) Books concerning the entire work of René Girard

René Girard con teólogos da libertacao. Um dialogo sobre ídolos e sacrifícios. Petrópolis: Vozes 1991.

Lundager Jensen, Hans J.: René Girard. Frederiksberg 1991.

Violent Origins. Walter Burkert, René Girard, and Jonathan Z. Smith on Ritual Killing and Cultural Formation. Edited by Robert G. Hamerton-Kelly, with an Introduction by Burton Mack and a Commentary by Renato Rosaldo. Stanford 1987.

2) Articles concerning the entire work of René Girard

Atlan, Henri: Founding Violence and Divine Referent. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 192-208.

Baudler, Georg: Authentische Rede vom christlichen Glauben. Die 'nicht-sakrifizielle' Evangelieninterpretation René Girards als Beispiel authentischer Glaubensrede. In: Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 109 (1987) 312-323.

Baudler, Georg: Am Anfang war das Wort - oder der Mord? Die Faszination des Lebens und die Faszination der Tötungsmacht am Ursprung der Religion. In: Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 111 (1989) 45-56.

Bertrand, M.: René Girard: un mythe anti-moderne. In: Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 54/2 (1982) 137-148.

Bureau, René: Le' Oeuvre de René Girard. In: Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 54/2 (1982) 127-137.

Burrell, David B.: René Girard: Violence and Sacrifice. In: Cross Currents 1988/89. Bd. 38. Teil 4.

Dumouchel, Paul: Introduction. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 1-21.

Dupuy, Jean-Pierre: Totalization and Misrecognition. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 75-100.

Ebach, Jürgen: Gewalt: Verharmlosung durch ein Theoriemonopol? Zur Rezeption René Girards durch Alttestamentler. In: Orientierung 49 (1985) 207-210.

Goodhart, Sandor: 'I am Joseph': René Girard and the Prophetic Law. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 53-74.

Jorgensen, Jorgen: Pa sporet af den tabte oprindelse. In: Paradigma 4 (1990) 43-51.

Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe: Mimesis and Truth. In: diacritics (1978) 10-23.

Lascaris, André: Als één scaap over de dam... De theorie van René Girard en geweldloosheid. In: Lascaris, André, u.a., Vragen om vrede. Berichten uit een werksplaats (Franciscaanse Studies 4). Utrecht 1988, 4-19.

Lefort, Guy, Oughourlian, Jean-Michel: Psychotic Structure and Girard's Doubles. In: diacritics (1978) 72-74.

Levine, Baruch: René Girard on Job: The Question of the Scapegoat. In: René Girard and Biblical Studies. Semeia 33 (1985) 125-133.

Livingston, Paisley: Girard and Literary Knowledge. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 221-235.

Livingston, Paisley: Demystification and History in Girard and Durkheim. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 113-133.

Lohfink, N.: Vorwort. In: R. Girard, Das Ende der Gewalt. Freiburg 1983, 5-8.

Mack, Burton: Introduction: Religion and Ritual. In: Violent Origins. Walter Burkert, René Girard, and Jonathan Z. Smith on Ritual Killing and Cultural Formation. Edited by Robert G. Hamerton-Kelly. Stanford 1987, 1-70.

Mack, Burton L.: The Innocent Transgressor: Jesus in early Christian Myth and History. In: René Girard and Biblical Studies. Semeia 33 (1985) 135-165.

Mathews, Aidan Carl: Knowledge of Good and Evil: The Work of René Girard. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 17-28.

McKenna, Andrew J.: Introduction. In: René Girard and Biblical Studies. Semeia 33 (1985) 1-11.

Nemoianu, V.: René Girard and the Dialectics of Imperfection. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 1-16.

North, Robert: Violence and the Bible: The Girard Connection. In: The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 47 (1985) 1-27.

Rüterswörden, U.: Das Ende der Gewalt? Zu René Girards Buch. In: Jahrbuch für Biblische Theologie. Band 2. Der eine Gott der beiden Testamente. Neukirchen-Vluyn 1987, 247-256.

Schwager, Raymund: Eine neue Interpretation der Geschichte im Licht des Christentums. In: Stimmen der Zeit 197 (1979) 784-788.

Schwager, Raymund: Offenlegung der Gewalt und christliche Offenbarung. Aggression in religionswissenschaftlicher und theologischer Sicht. In: das Evangelium des Friedens. Hrsg. v. P. Eicher. München 1982, 27-41.

Schwager, Raymund: Der Zorn Gottes. Zur Problematik der Allegorie. In: Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 105 (1983) 406-414.

Schwager, Raymund: Mimesis und Freiheit. In: Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 107 (1985) 365-376.

Schwager, Raymund: Religion und Gewalt. Am Beispiel der Untersuchungen von René Girard. In: Das Tabu der Gewalt. Eine Auswahl aus der Vortrags- und Diskussionsreihe 1985-1987 "Wissenschaft und Verantwortlichkeit". Hrsg. v. Hildegard Fässler. Innsbruck 1987, 79-95.

Schwager, Raymund: Rache - Gerechtigkeit - Religion. Überlegungen zu einer interdisziplinären Forschungsarbeit. In: Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 110 (1988) 284-299.

Schwager, Raymund: The Theology of the Wrath of God. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 45-52.

Schweiker, William: Sacrifice, Interpretation, and the Sacred: The Import of Gadamer and Girard for Religious Studies. In: American Academy of Religion 1987 (55) 791.

Scubla, Lucien: The Christianity of René Girard and the Nature of Religion. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 160-178.

Valadier, P.: Sündenbockmotiv und christliche Offenbarung nach René Girard. In: Theologie der Gegenwart 27 (1984) 86-93.

Van den Hoogen, T.: Over harde feiten en zachtmoedigheid. Coreferat bij de inleiding van dr. A.Lascaris. In: Lascaris, André, u.a., Vragen om vrede. Berichten uit een werksplaats (Franciscaanse Studies 4). Utrecht 1988, 20-24.

Van Egmond, Aad: Triumph der Wahrheit und Triumph der Gnade. René Girard und Karl Barth über Offenbarung, Religion, Kreuz und Gott. In: Zeitschrift für Dialektische Theologie 6 (1990/91) 185-205.

Waldschütz, Erwin: Schöpferischer Verzicht. Überlegungen zu einer Grundkategorie bei René Girard. In: Ganzheitliches Denken. Festgabe für Augustinus K. Wucherer-Huldenfeld zum 60. Geburtstag. Hg. v. J. Figl und E. Waldschütz. Wien 1989, 161-181.

Williams, James G.: The Innocent Victim: René Girard on Violence, Sacrifice, and the Sacred. In: Religious Studies Review 14 (1988) 320-326.

3) Reviews about single works of René Girard

Knauer, Peter: Rezension zu: René Girard, Hiob - ein Weg aus der Gewalt. Zürich 1990. In: Theologie und Philosophie 66 (1991) 242.

Palaver, Wolfgang: Rezension zu: René Girard, Das Heilige und die Gewalt. Zürich 1987. In: Die Zeit im Buch 42 (1988) 83f.

Palaver, Wolfgang: Rezension zu: René Girard, Der Sündenbock. Zürich 1988. In: Die Zeit im Buch 43 (1989) 72f.

Palaver, Wolfgang: Rezension zu: René Girard, Hiob - ein Weg aus der Gewalt. Zürich 1990. In: Die Zeit im Buch 44 (1990) 178f.

Smart, Ninian: Rezension zu: René Girard, Violence and the Sacred. Baltimore 1977. In: Religious Studies Review 6 (1980) 173-177.

4) Books with references to René Girard

Balthasar, H. U. v.: Theodramatik III. Die Handlung. Einsiedeln 1980.

Burkert, Walter: Anthropologie des religiösen Opfers. Die Sakralisierung der Gewalt. Müchen 1983.

Dunne, John S.: The Peace of the Present. An Unviolent Way of Life. Notre Dame 1991.

Eder, Klaus: Die Vergesellschaftung der Natur. Studien zur sozialen Evolution der praktischen Vernunft. Frankfurt am Main 1988.

Fleckenstein, Wolfgang: Außenseiter als Thema und Realität des katholischen Religionsunterrichts. Inhaltsanalyse religionsdidaktischer Unterrichtsmaterialien und ihre innovatorischen Konsequenzen orientiert am Beispiel Gastarbeiter (Studien zur Theologie 4). Würzburg 1989.

Goldmann, Lucien: Soziologie des Romans (stw 470). Frankfurt am Main.

Holl, Adolf: Im Keller des Heiligtums. Geschlecht und Gewalt in der Religion. Stuttgart 1991.

Huber, Wolfgang - Reuter, Hans-Richard: Friedensethik. Stuttgart 1990.

Kern, Walter: Disput um Jesus und um Kirche. Aspekte - Reflexionen. Innsbruck 1980.

Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe: Typography. Mimesis, Philosophy, Politics. With an Introduction by Jacques Derrida. Ed. by Christopher Fynsk. London 1989.

Moscovici, Serge: Das Zeitalter der Massen. Eine historische Abhandlung über die Massenpsychologie. Frankfurt am Main 1986.

Tierney, Patrick: Zu Ehren der Götter. Menschenopfer in den Anden. Aus dem Amerikanischen von Dina Mrkowatschki. München 1989.

Webb, Eugene: Philosophers of Consciousness. Polany, Lonergan, Voegelin, Ricoeur, Girard, Kierkegaard. Seattle and London 1988.

5) Articles with references to René Girard

Altwegg, Jürg: René Girard oder Die kulturelle Anthropologie einer Ethik des Evangeliums. In: Altwegg, Jürg - Schmidt, Aurel, Französische Denker der Gegenwart. Zwanzig Porträts. München 2. Aufl. 1988.

Altwegg, Jürg: ÉGALITÉ. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Magazin. 22. Woche. 2 Juni 1989. Heft 483, 20-28.74.

Bandera, Cesáreo: From Mythical Bees to Medieval Anti-Semitism. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 209-226.

Bassoff, Bruce: The Model as Obstacle: Kafka's 'The Trial'. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 299-315.

Baudler, Georg: Große Mutter - Erhabener Vater. Die Stellung der Frau in der Kirche aus dem Blickpunkt der Religionsgeschichte. In: Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 112 (1990) 257-270.

Dangl, Oskar: Gewalt und Gewaltlosigkeit im Alten Testament. Unterrichtserfahrung mit dem Thema. In: Bibel und Kirche 45 (1990) 100-106.

Detienne, Marcel: Culinary Practices and the Spirit of Sacrifice. In: Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks. Ed. by Marcel Detienne and Jean-Pierre Vernant. Translated by Paula Wissing. Chicago 1989, 1-20.

Domenach, Jean-Marie: Voyage to the End of the Sciences of Man. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 152-159.

Dumouchel, P.: Hobbes: La Course à la Souveraineté. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 153-176.

Feenberg, Andrew: Fetishism and Form: Erotic and Economic Disorder in Literature. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 134-151.

Galvin, John P.: Jesus as Scapegoat? Violence and the Sacred in the Theology of Raymund Schwager. In: Thomist 46 (1982) 173-194.

Gans, Eric: Sacred Text in Secular Culture. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 51-64.

Gebauer, G.: Festordnung und Geschmacksdistinktionen. Die Illusion der Integration im Freizeitsport. In: Sport - Eros - Tod. Hrsg. v. G. Hortleder und G. Gebauer. Frankfurt am Main 1986, 113-143.

Gebauer, G.: Größenphantasien des Sports. In: Sport - Eros - Tod. Hrsg. v. G. Hortleder und G. Gebauer. Frankfurt am Main 1986, 216-230.

Gebauer, Gunter: Das Begehren des Athleten. In: Sport - Eros - Tod. Hrsg. v. G. Hortleder und G. Gebauer. Frankfurt am Main 1986, 167-187.

Gekle, Hanna: Aggression. In: Handbuch religionswissenschaftlicher Grundbegriffe. Hg. von Hubert Cancik, Burkhard Gladigow, Matthias Laubscher. Band I. Stuttart 1988, 394-406.

Goodhart, Sandor: Oedipus and Laius' many Murderers. In: diacritics (1978) 55-71.

Harth, Dietrich: Literatur und Terror. In: Kultur und Konflikt. Hg. v. Jan Assmann und Dietrich Harth. Frankfurt am Main 1990, 345-372.

Holl, Adolf: Das Heilige. Nachruf auf eine Kopfgeburt. In: Kursbuch 93 (1988) 17-25.

Huber, Wolfgang: Konflikt und Versöhnung. In: Kultur und Konflikt. Hg. v. Jan Assmann und Dietrich Harth. Frankfurt am Main 1990, 49-71.

Hübner, Kurt: Die moderne Mythos-Forschung - eine noch nicht erkannte Revolution. In: Berliner Theologische Zeitschrift 6 (1989) 8-21.

Irigaray, Luce: Die Frauen, das Heilige, das Geld. In: Genealogie der Geschlechter. Aus dem Französischen von Xenia Rajewsky. Freiburg 1989, 121-143.

Keel, Othmar: Wie böse ist Gewalt? In: Orientierung 41 (1978) 43-46.

Kitzmüller, Erich: Ökologische und soziale Opferungen im Rechtsstaat - und die Opposition dagegen. In: Internationales Jahrbuch für Rechtsphilosophie und Gesetzgebung 1989. Aktuelle Probleme der Demokratie. Wien 1989, 123-139.

Koppisch, Michael S.: "Bonne Soupe" or "Beau Langage": Difference and Sameness in 'Les Femmes savantes'. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 281-297.

Lohfink, N.: Altes Testament - Die Entlarvung der Gewalt. In: Lohfink, N. - Pesch, R., Weltgestaltung und Gewaltlosigkeit. Düsseldorf 1978, 45-61.

Lohfink, Norbert: Wie sollte man das Alte Testament auf die Erbsünde hin befragen? In: Lohfink, N. u.a., Zum Problem der Erbsünde. Theologische und philosophische Versuche. Essen 1981, 9-52.

Lohfink, Norbert: Das Alte Testament: Aufdeckung und Krise der Gewalt. In: Bibel und Kirche 37 (1982) 38-44.

Lohfink, Norbert: "Gewalt" als Thema alttestamentlicher Forschung. In: Gewalt und Gewaltlosigkeit im Alten Testament. QD 96. Freiburg 1983, 15-50.

McLean, Bradley: On the Revision of Scapegoat Terminology. In: Numen 37 (1990) 168-173.

Niewiadomski, Józef: Gewaltanwendung oder Gewaltverzicht? Zur Logik der Praxis christlichen Glaubens. In: Gedanken des Friedens (Grazer theologische Studien 7). Hg. v. Peter Trummer. Graz 1982, 133-163.

Pesch, R.: Neues Testament - Die Überwindung der Gewalt. In: Lohfink, N., Pesch, R., Weltgestaltung und Gewaltlosigkeit. Düsseldorf 1978, 62-80.

Schwager, Raymund: Geschichtsphilosophie und Erlösungslehre. In: Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 102 (1980) 14-23.

Schwager, Raymund: Eindrücke einer Begegnung. In: Gewalt und Gewaltlosigkeit im Alten Testament. QD 96. Freiburg 1983, 214-224.

Schwager, Raymund: Der gewaltfreie Jesus. zur Frage der Übertragbarkeit von Vorbildern. In: Kathechetische Blätter 109 (1984) 274-279.

Schwager, Raymund: Ideologiekritik der Religion. In: Neues Handbuch theologischer Grunbbegriffe. Hrsg. v. P. Eicher. Band 2. München 1984, 207-215.

Schwager, Raymund: Der Tod Christi und die Opferkritik. In: Theologie der Gegenwart 29 (1986) 11-20.

Schwager, Raymund: Theologie und Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gespräche der Fakultäten - Interdisziplinarität (Veröffentlichungen der Universität Innsbruck 174). Schriftleitung: Helmut Reinalter. Innsbruck 1990, 81-84.

Serres, Michel: Origin of Geometry, IV. In: diacritics (1978) 24-30.

Siebers, Tobin: Language, Violence, and the Sacred: A Polemical Survey aof Critical Theories. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 203-219.

Sollers, Philippe: Is God Dead? "The Purloined Letter" of the Gospel. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 191-196.

Thomas, Konrad: On Law, Religion, and Custom. In: To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends. Saratoga 1986, 177-190.

Wolbert, Werner: Bergpredigt und Gewaltlosigkeit. In: ThPh 57 (1982) 498-525.

Wulf, Christoph: Mimesis. In: Gebauer, Gunter, u.a., Historische Anthropologie. Zum Problem der Humanwissenschaften heute oder Versuche einer Neubegründung. Reinbek bei Hamburg 1989, 83-125.

6) Books applying the method and theory of René Girard for own research

Achterhuis, Hans: Het rijk van de schaarste. Van Thomas Hobbes tot Michel Foucault. Utrecht 1988.

Baudler, Georg: Erlösung vom Stiergott. Christliche Gotteserfahrung im Dialog mit Mythen und Religionen. München 1989.

Dupuy, Jean-Pierre: La panique. Paris: Laboratoires Delagrange 1991.

Lascaris, André: Uitzicht voor een oude wereld. West-Europa op een keerpunt. Kampen 1987.

Palaver, Wolfgang: Politik und Religion bei Thomas Hobbes. Eine Kritik aus der Sicht der Theorie René Girards (Innsbrucker theologische Studien 33). Innsbruck 1991.

Schwager, Raymund: Brauchen wir einen Sündenbock? Gewalt und Erlösung in den biblischen Schriften. München 1978.

Schwager, Raymund: Der wunderbare Tausch. Zur Geschichte und Deutung der Erlösungslehre. München 1986.

Thomas, Konrad: Rivalität. Sozialwissenschaftliche Variationen zu einem alten Thema. Frankfurt am Main 1990.

7) Articles applying the method and theory of René Girard for own research

Agnew, Mary Barbara: A Transformation of Sacrifice: An Application of René Girard's Theorie of Culture and Religion. In: Worship Vol. 61, No. 6 (1987) 493-509.

Bureau, René: A Gabonese Myth. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 27-43.

Dupuy, Jean-Pierre: Self-Reference in Literature. In: Poetics 18 (1989) 491-515.

Gans, Eric: Christian Morality and the Pauline Revelation. In: René Girard and Biblical Studies. Semeia 33 (1985) 97-108.

Goodhart, Sandor: Prophecy, Sacrifice and Repentance in the Story of Jonah. In: René Girard and Biblical Studies. Semeia 33 (1985) 43-63.

Hamerton-Kelly, Robert G.: A Girardian Interpretation of Paul: Rivalry, Mimesis and Victimage in the Corinthian Correspondence. In: René Girard and Biblical Studies. Semeia 33 (1985) 65-81.

Hamerton-Kelly, Robert G.: Sacred Violence and "Works of Law." "Is Christ Then an Agent of Sin?" (Galatians 2:17). In: the Catholic Biblical Quarterly 52 (1990) 55-75.

Hamerton-Kelly, Robert G.: Sacred Violence and Sinful Desire: Paul's Interpretation of Adam's Sin in the Letter to the Romans. In: The Conversation Continues. Studies in Paul & John. In Honor of J. Louis Martyn. Ed. by Robert T. Fortana and Beverly R. Gaventa. Nashville 1990, 35-54.

Hamerton-Kelly, Robert G.: Sacred Violence and the Curse of the Law (Galatians 3.13): The Death of Christ as a Sacrificial Travesty. In: New Testament Studies 36 (1990) 98-118.

Jorgensen, Jorgen: Den hellige vold og offerets stemme. In: Martin A. Hansen Nyhedsbrev 1990, 3, 7-10 und 1991, 7, 8.11-13.

Lascaris, André: Opfere weder Isaak noch dich selbst. In: Isaak wird wieder geopfert. Die "Bindung Isaaks" als Symbol des Leidens Israels. Versuche einer Deutung. Hg. v. Willem Zuidema. Neukirchen-Vluyn 1987, 146-179.

Lohfink, Norbert: Der gewalttätige Gott des Alten Testaments und die Suche nach einer gewaltfreien Gesellschaft. In: Jahrbuch für Biblische Theologie. Bd. 2. Der eine Gott der beiden Testamente. Neukirchen-Vluyn 1987, 106-136.

Niewiadomski, Józef: Vom verfluchten zum nichterwählten, aber doch verdammten Esau. Prädestinationsdilemma im Licht der Theorie von René Girard. In: Congresso Internazionale su S. Agostino nel XVI Centenario della Conversione. ATTI III. (Studia Ephemeridis "Augustinianum" 26). Rom 1987, 297-307.

Orléan, André: Money and Mimetic Speculation. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 101-112.

Oughourlian, Jean-Michel: Mimetic Desire as a Key to Psychotic and Neurotic Structure. In: Disorder and Order. Proceedings of the Stanford International Symposium (Sept. 14-16, 1981). Ed. by Paisley Livingston. Saratoga 1984, 72-79.

Palaver, Wolfgang: Gleichheit als Sprengkraft? Zum Einfluß des Christentums auf die Entwicklung der Demokratie. In: Verweigerte Mündigkeit? Politische Kultur und Kirche (theologische trends 2). Hg. v. Józef Niewiadomski. Thaur 1989, 195-217.

Tijmes, Pieter: Het politieke begrip van Schmitt. In: Filosofie & praktijk 7/4 (1986) 169-184.

Wieser, Thomas: Community - Its Unity, Diversity and Universality. In: René Girard and Biblical Studies. Semeia 33 (1985) 83-95.

Wulf, Christoph: Religion und Gewalt. In: Ästhetik und Kommunikation. 16 Jg. Heft 60: Religion - Sehnsucht und Schrecken, 10-16.

Yamaguchi, Masao: Towards a Poetics of the Scapegoat. In: Violence and Truth. On the Work of René Girard. Edited by Paul Dumouchel. London 1988, 179-191.


Abstracts of the COV&R-Conference in New Orleans November 16, 1990

Edwin A. Hallsten, "The Commandment That Kills: Paul & Prohibition"

Paul's violent metaphors describing the law in Romans 7 provide a setting for a conceptual dialogue between René Girard and Gerd Theissen (Gerd Theissen, Psychological Aspects of Pauline Theology. Translated by John P. Galvin. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987). Theissen's "psychological hermeneutic" is augmented by Girard's work on mimetic religious violence and the author's work (E.A. Hallsten) on biblical imitative alternatives to violence. This enriched perspective is applied to Theissen's study on Paul with a focus on Paul's understanding of the role of the law in religion and life as set forth in Romans 7 and 8. Some concluding suggestions link the psycho-spiritual violence Paul sees rising out of prohibition with other more external and social mechanisms of human violence.

Michael Hardin, "The Biblical Testaments as A Marriage of Convenience: René Girard and Biblical Interpretation"

Wolfgang Palaver, "A Girardian Interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's Use of the Bible"

Three examples (Hobbes's picture of Moses, his interpretation of the prophecy of the Old Testament, and his interpretation of the book Job) show that Hobbes gives a "mythological" interpretation of the Old Testament. Although he tries to bring this interpretation into accord with the New Testament, his Moses-Jesus-typology, his interpretation of Jesus's prophetic office as well as the proof of his interpretation of Job, which he believes to find in the New Testament, demonstrate that Hobbes creates only a formal unity between his mythological interpretation of the Old Testament and the New Testament. We can also find elements in the above mentioned biblical examples (interpretation of Moses, the prophets, of Job) where Hobbes overcomes mythological thinking. This demythologization may be explained by the term "secularization". Hobbes, however, is not secularizing the true Christianity but a form of mythological thinking (e.g. Hobbes's view on witchcraft).

James G. Williams, "Kings and Prophets: Sacred Lot and Divine Calling"

In some respects the prophet and the king are "twins," doubles of one another. Their traditional functions, as Israelite culture developed, diverged and understandably came to be understood as distinct from one another. The role of the king was more or less determined by his positive relation to the mimetic enactment of popular feeling, symbols, and institutions, and his power resided in his ability to control the mechanism that made him the primary scapegoat. Prophets remain typically closer to the structural origins of being selected through the victimization mechanism in the sense that they are a kind of radical "throwback," recalling and re-enacting some primary aspects of the exception in the process of emerging. The transformation of this status of the scapegoat victim into the basis of the prophet's vocation and of the prophet's understanding of Israel is the chief dynamic of revelation and Scripture.

Walter Wink, "Breaking the Spiral of Violence: The Victory of the Cross"

Following a discussion of the power of the cross to expose the system of domination that had killed Jesus, I present a summary of Girard's theory of mimetic violence and the scapegoat. This is followed by a brief critique of Girard:

1) I do not agree with Girard that all myths are lies masking events of generative violence. I believe that they often tell the truth, and that they are rather straightforward depictions of the actual power relations in a given society.

2) I regard the scapegoat motif as merely a sub-set or variation on the theme of violence (one which does involve attempts to disguise the real injustice of victimage), and see the combat myth of redemptive violence as more generic and common. Squaring off and slugging it out is the norm, and no third-party scapegoat is usually involved. Scapegoating occurs more often in intragroup rivalry rather than between nations. In wars, the more powerful combatant simply wins, and makes the loser subordinate. This pattern is already visible in primates.

3) The idea of the sacrificial, expiatory death of Jesus is far more pervasive in the New Testament than Girard acknowledges. Paul betrays a certain ambivalence toward the sacrifice of Christ. Girard has stressed one side of that ambivalence, his critics the other. Paul has apparently been unable fully to distinguish the insight that Christ is the end of sacrificing from the idea that Christ is the final sacrifice whose death is an atonement to God.

4) I doubt that the scapegoat motif is foundational for all the world's myths, or that the Judeo-Christian Scriptures have a monopoly on the criticism of violence. There are myths that are nonviolent (the Hopi emergence myth, to name only one) and as true as anything ever articulated by Christianity, and Girard's Christian triumphalism does them grave injustice. But (in fairness to Girard) while these traditions do reduce violence by ritual, asceticism, injunction and example, they do not raise the scapegoating mechanism to consciousness.

5) There seems to be little evidence of human sacrifice prior to 4000 B.C.E. So whether the scapegoat goes back to the origins of humanity is far from certain. Girard's attempt to ground mythically the scapegoating mechanism in pre-history is especially ironic, since he regards all myth as untrue.

6) It is risky to build an analytical theory on speculations about pre-historical culture when the evidence is so thin. Universal claims for a single-cause solution to the problem of violence have always proven inflated in the past, and there is no reason to expect anything different here. But the real value of Girard's hypothesis lies not in its theory of origins, but its analytical power to unmask the nature of human violence today. Even if aspects of Girard's overall thesis are proved wrong, his understanding of mimetic rivalry and conflict and of the scapegoat are among the most profound intellectual discoveries of our time, and will remain permanent contributions to our understanding of the meaning of Jesus' crucifixion. (This paper will be published in revised form in my "Engaging the Powers: Discernment and Resistance in a World of Domination" Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992.)


Abstracts of the COV&R-Conference ("Mythology, with particular reference to the hypothesis of René Girard") at Stanford University May 16-18, 1991

Judith Hepler Arias, "Don Juan, Cupid, and the Devil"

Judith H. Arias shifts the traditional focus on Don Juan's origins in medieval folklore and in fictional or real-life precursors to his connection with the pagan tradition of Eros/Cupid and the Christian tradition of the Devil. Don Juan in fact makes his debut into the world of literary fiction as the composite figure Don Juan/Cupid/Devil, as her study of the metaphorical connections between these figures in Tirso de Molina's El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra (c. 1630) illustrates. The association of Don Juan with Cupid and the Devil is shown to be significant from a Girardian perspective for its relation to mediated desire and for the light it sheds upon our understanding of the problem of human evil.

Cesáreo Bandero, "Desacralization and the Function of Myth in the Theater of Calderón"

In 1651, at the age of 51, Calderón decided to become a priest. As part of his decision he wanted to stop writing for the theater. At the insistence of the King and the Court, he struck with himself something of a compromise. He would continue to write, but only certain types of plays: on the one hand, autos sacramentales, one-act sacramental plays, and, on the other, almost exclusively mythological plays. What kind of logic underlies this peculiar choice, this thematic and somewhat contradictory dichotomy? Furthermore, is there any relationship between this Calderonian decision and the view of the theater which can be found in such earlier masterpieces as La vida es sueño? These are the questions explored in this paper.

Paul B. Duff - Joseph M. Hallman, "'Your Desire Shall Be for Your Husband and He Shall Rule over You': Sex, Power, and Murder in the Garden?"

The subject of the paper is Genesis 2.4b to 4.16, the story of Adam and Eve, and Cain and Abel. We believe that the original story, now hidden in the first part of the narrative, was about the expulsion of the primal man from the circle of the gods. We propose that this interpretation, based on René Girard, explains the text better than any of the many others which have been given or are held currently.

The story of the so-called "fall" which resulted in the attainment of the knowledge of good and evil (survival is the good, and violence the evil, hence sacrifice is necessary) by the man and woman was formed at a later stage. Appropriate editing changed the original story of expulsion from the divine council, "cleaning it up" so to speak. The biblical story as it now stands relates the origin of gender difference (their nakedness), and how the discovery of that difference created a unique sameness, difference mimesis and desiring on the part of men and women. This has obvious overtones for gender studies.

Cain kills Abel because Cain ignores the knowledge of good and evil. Cain's sacrifice is not bloody. Hence his violence is unleashed on his brother. Girard himself has already made this point.

René Girard, "A Venda Myth Analyzed"

A mimetic scapegoat reading of a Venda myth according to the versions reproduced by Luc de Heusch in Le roi ivre ou l'origine de l'état (Gallimard, 1972), pp. 61-62.

Robert Hamerton-Kelly, "Allegory, Typology, and Sacred Violence: Sacrificial Representation and the Unity of the Bible in Paul and Philo"

Philo of Alexandria interpreted the Bible allegorically in order to make it accessible to cultured people of his time. The Church Fathers of Alexandria continued allegorical interpretation, while the Fathers of Antioch preferred typology. They believed that these modes of interpretation demonstrated the unity of the Bible. According to them the biblical text refers to a spiritual world beyond itself.

Both allegory and typology are tropes in which on thing stands for another, that is, they are complex forms of representation. By mimetic theory all representation is sacrificial because it begins with the victim as the signifier and the violence of the mob as the signified. Representation points away from the self towards the victim. It is a form of scapegoating, in the sense of the primal differentiation that makes society possible. Allegory and typology are hyper-sacrificial because they locate the meaning of the text entirely in the metaphysical realm.

The hermeneutic of sacred violence, centered on the Cross and exemplified by the apostle Paul, is a form of representation that locates meaning not in the metaphysical but in the interpersonal realm. It does so by disclosing that it was the metaphysical in its religio-mythological guise that crucified Christ. The Cross is, therefore, the disclosure of the violence of metaphysical myth-interpretation, of which allegory and typology are prime examples.

The unity of the Bible is secured by the fact that the hermeneutic of the Cross operates in both testaments. The "Judgement of Solomon', in l Kings 3:l6-28 is a clear example of its operation. In order to see it throughout the Bible one must be made aware of it, and since the Cross of Christ is the most vivid instance of it, it is also the point at which one is most likely to become aware of it. The gospel of the Cross is, therefore, also an instruction about how to read the Bible, and all literature for that matter.

Michael Hardin, "Mimesis and Dominion: The Dynamics of Violence and the Imitation of Christ in Maximus Confessor"

Cheryl Ann Kirk-Duggan, "Counterpoint: Girardian Double-Bind and DuBoisian Double-Consciousness"

William E.B. DuBois uses double-consciousness, and René Girard uses double-bind to analyze the dichotomous, paradoxical Power of doubles. Girard uses the concept of double-bind which is a product of triangular mimetic (imitative, representative) rivalry when difference between partners no longer exists. ... Mimetic desire creates violent appropriation and exclusion in Western culture: scapegoating. DuBois uses the double-consciousness of the veiled African American life: a contradictory, bifurcated conscious of souls, thoughts, and unreconciled strivings. DuBois contrasts double-consciousness as both a gift when the African American moves toward transformed self-consciousness and the curse of a racist society that projects back a distorted, broken-mirrored image.

Girard and DuBois use literary tools to orchestrate aberrant socio-cultural harmonies with God, self and others. They challenge us to listen to the solo voice of appearances and hear the ensembles of reality. Both writers question power, relationships, and human identity. Midst the sacred within their cosmologies, they both seek a healing response via the divine and human I am-ness using the double hermeneutically. Mimesis and The Veil are the keys to Girardian violence and sacrality and the DuBoisian color line: both are born of cultural schizophrenia.

Girard's doubles are profound but remain problematic with their insensitivity to the feminine, nature, and non-Western thought, and the need to begin and end all rivalry with a death. In contrast, DuBois stands for the conjunction of opposites which usually embrace difference but may transcend the mimetic, conflictual, triangular veil of desire. DuBois' veil-double thus stands Girard's bind-double on end and vice versa.

Stuart Lasine, "Job, Myth, and the Ethics of Reading Girard"

René Girard believes that one cannot answer any important question about the Book of Job unless one takes into account the foundational idea of the scapegoat mechanism. This paper examines the implications of Girard's technique of "global interpretation" for two key issues: the notion of the anthropologist/interpreter as a hero who exposes the perfidy of myth, and Girard's dismissal of the narrative framework and the divine speeches as additions to the dialogues designed to neutralize the revelation of the scapegoat. The paper concludes by showing that these alleged additions actually have an anti-mythical thrust comparable to that of the dialogues.

Charles Mabee, "Some Biblical Strategies of Demythification"

Unlike myth, the Bible strives to bring us to a presentation of the immediate experience of God. A major demythification strategy of the Bible is the recognition that the double is both the originating point of mythological development, as well as the point where the demything process is primarily rooted. The stories of Abraham and Moses are in direct opposition to the predilection of mythology: The figure of Moses undergoes the process of demythification with reference to the events connected with his death: Mosaic law replaces the Mosaic body upon his death. The book of Job argues for demythification by retrieving for human rationality a responsible, ethical universe while simultaneously acknowledging the limitations of that same rationality.

Andrew J. McKenna, "The Law's Delay: Cinema and Sacrifice"

While most discussions of genre films -- Westerns, Gangster, Horror, and Science fiction films -- engage some consideration of myth, the sacrificial scenario of Girard's mimetic hypothesis affords rigor and coherence to this notion. The expulsion of villainy by a heroic representative of the community reflects the dynamics of sacrifice . The manifold dimensions of ritual are legible in these scenarios which aim at occluding the communal i origin of violence. They translate the public's ambivalence to the law, which seeks to monopolize revenge. The hero-villain-victim (townspeople) triad veils the more essential dyad of mimetically violent doubles whose rivalry both informs and threatens the social order -- the villain-victim being the pretext for variously dissimulated mob action.

Raymund Schwager, "Mythological Image of God and New Testament Words of Judgment"

Are the judgment sayings a sign, that the God of the New Testament remains in a subtle way a mythological God (simultaneously good and terrible)? A precise analysis reveals that the metaphorical language of the parables (of judgment) has to be interpreted with respect to their 'point' (la pointe). There are normally two 'points'. The first effects a dramatization within a typical course of action, and the second turns around this entire perspective. In this subtle way the parables of judgment reveal that the judgment is a self-judgment. The indirect and metaphorical speech is necessary because language as such is rooted in a world of violence, and the revelation of a nonviolent God includes the entire transformation of language.

Simon Simonse, "The Burst and the Cut Stomach: The Representation of the Scapegoat Mechanism in Nilotic Kingship"

The point of departure of my paper are two contrasting but related practices performed on the bodies of dead kings by communities on the Upper Nile in the Southern Sudan. The bodies of kings who die a non-violent death are left to bloat and burst with the purpose of multiplying the blessings ensuing from their death. The bellies of kings killed by the community for causing drought are slit open so as to prevent further disaster from attacking the community. I argue that the practices are fully elucidated by considering the royal stomach as a 'victimary organ' turning violence into order. The argument is concluded with a plea for regional structural comparison to support victimary hermeneutics and by raising some questions on the nature of the awareness (`meconnaissance') of the participants in scapegoating-processes in the societies under discussion.

Ivan Strenski, "At Home with René Girard: Eucharistic Sacrifice, the 'French School', and Joseph De Maistre"

Girard's theory of sacrifice is best seen as a piece of theological discourse. As such, it indicts (and inverts) a particular French Catholic spirituality, deriving from the reaction to the Protestant reformation. This religion originates in the sacrificial eucharistic theology of the seventeenth century "Ecole Française de Spiritualité," which was developed under the leadership of the Oratorian order, Bérulle, Condren, and Olier. Oratorian spirituality was subsequently reinforced by the political-religious thought of De Maistre, and the novelists of the Catholic revival, Bernanos, Huysmans, and Bloy.



Raymund Schwager, Jesus im Heilsdrama.

Entwurf einer biblischen Erlösungslehre ["Jesus in the Drama of Salvation: Sketch of a biblically-based doctrine of redemption"] (Innsbrucker theologische Studien 29). Innsbruck: Tyrolia 1990. 8th ed. (307 pp.). Hardcover. 310 Austrian Schillings or 44 DM.

For several years, inspired by the works of René Girard, the Innsbruck systematic theologican Raymund Schwager has been working on a new model of the doctrine of redemption. After his book about the biblical problematic (R. Schwager, Brauchen wir einen Sündenbock? Gewalt und Erlösung in den biblischen Schriften, München 1978; 2nd ed. 1985; american translation: Must There Be Scapegoats? New York 1987), after a second book dealing with historical models of the doctrine of redemption (R. Schwager, Der wunderbare Tausch. Zur Geschichte und Deutung der Erlösungslehre. München 1986), and after a third book, one among many contemporary efforts made to consider current political problems in a theological light (R. Schwager, Für Gerechtigkeit und Frieden. Der Glaube als Antwort auf die Anliegen der Gegenwart. Innsbruck 1986), follows now his first attempt to conceive systematically a soteriology ("Jesus im Heilsdrama. Entwurf einer biblischen Erlösungslehre" Innsbruck: Tyrolia 1990). This book attempts to articulate and reconcile biblical and systematic questions.

The logical starting-point is the fundamental assumption, in the last 30 years of theology increasingly well-received, that God's redeeming action takes place in the proclamation and praxis of the message of the basileia. From this message emerge the contours and content of the God-image: the God of Jesus Christ is a radically good God. God's relationship to sinners is described as "enemy-love" (pp. 43-75). This argumentation, taken for granted by many contemporary theological models, is radically developed by a second step, in which a new question is considered. This new perspective is intimated by Girard in his "Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde" (pp. 226-228; German trans. 1983, pp. 210-212) where he treats the connection between God's basileia and the Apocalypse. According to Girard, the salvation offered by God, rendered impossible by human refusal, has nevertheless won out. How this divine salvation can reach the "refusing person", all the while respecting the "refusing" and "obdurate" human will, is the subject of Schwager's reflections for the following 200 pages. He analyses the "Answer of God" to humankind's refusal of God's love both in the context of contemporary exegesis as well as in a consideration of classical questions of systematic theology. In so doing, Schwager makes preciser and more nuanced many views which he in his book "Must There Be Scapegoats?" and Girard in his book "Des choses cachées" have intimated in reference to the theme of "the divine will and Jesus' violent death." The systematic conclusions which Schwager connects with the event of the cross (pp. 203-263) are of great significance for the contemporary theological, ethical, and political discussion. A new separation of humankind, corresponding to God's redeeming action, overcomes the soteriological myth of the "good followers" and the "evil rulers of this world." The temptation of a condemnatory moralism is thereby overcome: "the great dividing-line runs right through the middle of every person. Personally responsible for every sin committed, every person is an enemy of Christ. Yet as a victim of evil (and even as perpetrator of evil), every person is the concern of God's redeeming power." (p. 244). This book is an indispensable aid precisely for the political discussion which flares up again and again over the issue of perpetrators and victims of evil.

Józef Niewiadomski

Wolfgang Palaver, Politik und Religion bei Thomas Hobbes.

Eine Kritik aus der Sicht der Theorie René Girards ["Politics and Religion according to Thomas Hobbes: A Critique from the Perspective of the Theory of René Girard"] (Innsbrucker theologische Studien 33). Innsbruck: Tyrolia 1991. 8th ed. (387 pp.). Hardcover. 390 Austrian Schillings or 56 DM.

The "external framework" of this book is clear. In the first part (pp. 23-141) Palaver compares the political philosophy of Hobbes with that of Girard. In a second part (pp. 142-337) he undertakes a critique of Hobbes' biblical theology. What appears to present itself at first glance as a "clear" monograph is, in reality, an extremely complex work: With this book Palaver has dared an innovative undertaking in the realm of text interpretation. In addition to the usual comparison of two authors in regard to some question (here Thomas Hobbes and René Girard), Palaver's situating of a systematic questioning of the connections between politics and religion on, as it were, several levels makes this work deserving of being considered "innovative". In addition to the texts of Hobbes and the contemporary writers, Palaver concerns himself with the biblical traditions relevant to the theme which Hobbes considered but also left out. The content of these traditions is examined in the context of the biblical revelation both from a historical-critical perspective as well as from a systematic perspective (i.e., from the perspective of Girard's theory). In long passages Palaver's book turns into a sketch of biblical theology which, within the framework of an evaluation of the contemporary theological discussion (especially in regards to historical-critical exegesis), considers questions concerning violence and nonviolence as well as the theological legitimization of political power. This biblical-theological sketch is a necessary background out of which the author can make critical judgments of Hobbes' position. His judgments are therefore of a fundamental type -- for example, his judgment of Hobbes' political philosophy which is qualified as "sacrificial in the broader sense of the term" (pp. 98-141). Christianity, which is treated in Hobbes' writings, is described as "sacrificial Christianity", which necessarily bisects a possible demythologization (in Girard's sense of the term) of political philosophy, because it does not overcome the "structure of persecution which is typical of mythological thinking" (p. 338). The abundance of insights and consequences for a contemporary political theology cannot be at all addressed in this short space. The intentionally diverse nature of this book makes it interesting for diverse groups of scholars: Historians, political scientists, literary scholars, and theologians (both scripture scholars as well as social ethicists and systematic theologians) can find here stimulating ideas for their respective disciplines. This book is indeed, in the truest sense of the term, a successful "interdisciplinary work", especially for the "Girardian". Józef Niewiadomski


New Books

René Girard, A Theater of Envy. William Shakespeare. New York: Oxford University Press 1991.

James G. Williams, The Bible, Violence and the Sacred. Liberation from the Myth of Sanctioned Violence. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco 1991 (scheduled to appear by November 23).


Future Meetings

The Colloquium on Violence and Religion will meet in Kansas City on Saturday, November 23, 9 a.m. to 12 noon, in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion and Society of Biblical Literature. The meeting will take place in Bartle Hall 210N. The main part of the program, beginning at 10 a.m. will be devoted to a discussion of Eugene Webb's chapter on Girard in Philosophers of Conscience. Prof. Webb will be present, and Professors Andrew McKenna of Loyola-Chicago and Mark Wallace of Swarthmore will serve as respondents. From 9-10 a.m. those attending will have coffee and rolls and be given information concerning COV&R. A brief report on the conference at the University of Innsbruck Sept. 25-28 on "Dramatische Erlösungslehre" will also be made.

The next annual meeting will take place May 6 to 9, 1992 at Stanford. The provisional theme is "Ethnocentrism in the Study of Violence," on which a select number of speakers will be invited. Provision will also be made for sections or workshops for volunteered papers or panel proposals. Everyone liked our format of pre-circulating papers and having presenters summarize in order to allow more time for discussion, so we will continue that. The deadline for paper or section proposals is December 31, 1991. The deadline for submission of papers is March 1, 1992.