Entry structure   

    What does the structure in the individual entries look like?


Within an entry, languages are generally displayed in the following order:


German – English – Spanish – French - Italian


Irrespective of the languages with which you personally work in this database, the order in which the languages appear follows above-mentioned order. This means that your mother tongue is not necessarily the first language displayed within an entry.


The entry structure is the same in all languages, which makes it easy to compare the information on the individual concepts and their terms in all the languages. This is meant to promote the learning effect.


In order to keep a clear structure in this database, we have not indicated the sources from which we received the information.


Entry structure in detail:

In English:                                           (see also: in German, in Spanish, in French, in Italian)

 aufbau en

Main entry term: The main entry term is marked by an abbreviation for the respective language (DE (German), EN (English), ES (Spanish), FR (French), IT (Italian)) in bold. The main entry term in the example shown above is „wine-making“. This is the term that is most commonly used in the respective language for the described object or activity.


Grammatical details of a term: A term’s grammatical details can be found directly after each term. The indicated grammatical details vary depending on what word class the term belongs to:


  • noun: With a noun (for example wine-making) we give you information on the following grammatical properties: noun marker (in English always the). After the noun marker you can find the indication of the term’s gender in italics. Since the English language does not distinguish between feminine and masculine terms, you will always just find an ‘n’ here, which refers to ‚noun’ (In Spanish, French, German or Italian entries you might find one of the following abbreviations: ‘n.f.’, which stands for ‘feminine noun’, ‘n.m.’, which stands for ‘masculine noun’ or an ‘n.n’ (only in German), which stands for ‘neutral noun’). Eventually, you will find the plural form of the term in brackets. Some terms do not have such a plural form. In that case you will find the following indication in brackets: ‘singular only’. Some main entry terms are already displayed in the plural form, which means that there is no singular form for this very term. In this case, you will find the following information in brackets: ‘plural only’.
  • verb: With a verb (for example ‚vinify’) you will only find the indication ‘verb’ in italics after the main entry term. (German: Verb; Spanish: verbo; French: verbe; Italian: verbo)
  • adjective: With an adjective (used to describe the characteristics of a noun, for example ‚medium sweet’) you will equally only find the information ‘adjective’ in italics after the main entry term (German: Adjektiv, Spanish: adjetivo, French: adjectif, Italian: aggettivo).


DEF: This abbreviation marks the definition of the respective concept. For a better understanding you can find links (highlighted in red) within those definitions that lead you to concepts that do as well have an entry in this database. By clicking on those links, you are automatically led to those entries.


Terms with the same meaning: Sometimes there are several terms to describe one concept. A distinction is made between:


  • synonym: Term with the same meaning, sometimes with a regional limitation in German entries (for example ‘Synonym, österreichisch’, which means ‘synonym, Austrian’).
  • abbreviated form: Term with the same meaning, but in an abbreviated form (for example ‘solids’ is the abbreviated form of ‘solid particles’).
  • long form: Term with the same meaning, but in a longer version (for example ‘vine training system’ is the long form of ‘training system’).
  • verb: Sometimes, when the main term entry is a noun, there is also the respective verb listed below the main entry term. (for example: wine-making (noun) à vinify (verb).
  • noun: Sometimes, when the main term entry is a verb, there is also the respective noun listed below the main entry term. (for example: disgorge (verb) à disgorgement (noun).


NOTE: This is the note field in which you can find some additional information in connection with the term. Those additional pieces of information can be a conversion formula for a measuring unit as in the entry ‚degree Oechsle’ or regional limitations in the usage of a certain term etc…


LINKS: In this field you can find links to related concepts. If you click on one of those links you are directly led to the respective entry containing the related concept. There are various ‚degrees of relationship’ (concept relations that can be consulted in the form of a concept map when clicking on the button Hilfe (meaning:’help’)): Fundamentally, every concept needs to be connected with a minimum of one other concept. This ‘relationship’ should be similarly accessible via words that are in connection to each other.




Destemming machine is linked through the concept relation ‘used for’ with destem. If you go to the entry destem, you will see the concept relation ‘use of’ that leads you back to destemming machine.


You can find those correlations in the following chart:

used for

ex.: destemming machine à used for: destem (verb)

use of

ex.: destem (verb) à use of: destemming machine

stages of production

ex.: grape processing à stages of production: destem (verb)

stage of production of

ex.: destem (verb) à stage of production of: grape processing


ex.: wine-making à type: white wine-making

type of

ex.: white wine-making à type of: wine-making


ex.: wine-making à place: wine cellar

place for

ex.: wine cellar à place for: wine-making


ex.: taste à characteristic: fresh

characteristic of

ex.: fresh à characteristic of: taste


ex.: rack à by-product: sediment

by-product of

ex.: sediment à by-product of: rack


ex.: presentation of the bottle à part: stopper


ex.: stopper à whole: presentation of the bottle


ex.: sparkling wine à requires: bottle fermentation

prerequisite for

ex.: bottle fermentation à prerequisite for: sparkling wine

cross reference (equivalent to ‚see also’)

ex.: botrytis à cross reference: noble rot

cross reference

ex.: noble rot à cross reference: botrytis


ex.: pomace à product: pomace brandy

product of

ex.: pomace brandy à product of: pomace

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