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The GEMS is the first instrument that has been specifically devised to measure musically evoked emotions.

The GEMS-45 contains 45 labels that proved to be consistently chosen for describing musically evoked emotive states across a relatively wide range of music and listener samples. Moreover, we found that these states can be grouped into 9 different categories. Thus, the GEMS is composed of nine emotional scales, which in turn condense into three "superfactors". Shorter Scales, the GEMS-25 and the GEMS-9 have also been developed. As demonstrated in our research (Zentner et al., 2008), the GEMS accounts for ratings of music-evoked emotions more powerfully than multi-purpose scales that are based on non-musical areas of emotion research.


Zentner, M., Grandjean, D., & Scherer (2008). Emotions evoked by the sound of music: Characterization, classification, and measurement, Emotion, 8, 494-521.


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