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Theorizing the Digital

Summer Term 2019

Course Objectives:

This course is designed to develop well-founded knowledge and transdisciplinary perspectives on digitization. We will critically reflect and discuss papers that examine “the digital” from various angles. 

The course will be held in the format of a reading group. The main objective of the course is to equip students with a transdisciplinary lens on digital phenomena and to establish a common basis of knowledge among the participants of the doctoral program #OrganizingtheDigital. Moreover, the specific setting of this course allows participants and faculty members of the DP to share knowledge, insights, develop a common interest and collective identity.

Reading List:

 Introduction
 

Short introductory lecture and discussion

 Session I
 

Felix Stalder (2018): The Digital Condition

Stadler

Our daily lives, our culture and our politics are now shaped by the digital condition as large numbers of people involve themselves in contentious negotiations of meaning in ever more dimensions of life, from the trivial to the profound. They are making use of the capacities of complex communication infrastructures, currently dominated by social mass media such as Twitter and Facebook, on which they have come to depend.

Amidst a confusing plurality, Felix Stalder argues that are three key constituents of this condition: the use of existing cultural materials for one's own production, the way in which new meaning is established as a collective endeavour, and the underlying role of algorithms and automated decision-making processes that reduce and give shape to massive volumes of data. These three characteristics define what Stalder calls 'the digital condition'. Stalder also examines the profound political implications of this new culture. We stand at a crossroads between post-democracy and the commons, a concentration of power among the few or a genuine widening of participation, with the digital condition offering the potential for starkly different outcomes.

This ambitious and wide-ranging theory of our contemporary digital condition will be of great interest to students and scholars in media and communications, cultural studies, and social, political and cultural theory, as well as to a wider readership interested in the ways in which culture and politics are changing today.

   www.wiley.com/en-us/The+Digital+Condition-p-9781509519590

 Session II  

Elliot, S. (2011). Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Environmental Sustainability: A Resource Base and Framework for IT-enabled Business Transformation. Mis Quarterly, 35(1), 197-236

Elliot

The quality and future of human existence are directly related to the condition of our natural environment, but we are damaging the environment. Scientific evidence has mounted a compelling case that human behavior is responsible for deterioration in the Earth's natural environment, with the rate of deterioration predicted to increase in the future. Acknowledging this evidence, the governments of 192 countries have formally agreed to take action to resolve problems with the climate system, one of the most highly stressed parts of the natural environment. While the intention is clear, the question of how best to proceed is not.

The research reported here undertook a three-phase approach of selecting, analyzing, and synthesizing relevant literature to develop a holistic, transdisciplinary, integrative framework for IT-enabled business transformation. The focus on business transformation is because business is recognized as being a critical contributor in realizing the challenges of environmental sustainability due to its potential capacity for innovation and change—locally, nationally, and globally. This article also serves as a resource base for researchers to begin to undertake significant information systems and multidisciplinary work toward the goal of environmental sustainability. Through selection and analysis of illustrative examples of current work from 12 academic disciplines across 6 core categories, the framework addresses the key issues of uncertainty:
(1) What is meant by environmental sustainability?
(2) What are its major challenges?
(3) What is being done about these challenges?
(4) What needs to be done?

   www.jstor.org/stable/23043495

Vergne, J. P., Wernicke, G., & Brenner, S. (2018). Signal Incongruence and Its Consequences: A Study of Media Disapproval and CEO Overcompensation. Organization Science, 29(5), 796-817

Vergneetal

We draw on the signaling and infomediary literatures to examine how media evaluations of CEO overcompensation (a negative cue associated with selfishness and greed) are affected by the presence of corporate philanthropy (a positive cue associated with altruism and generosity). In line with our theory on signal incongruence, we find that firms engaged in philanthropy receive more media disapproval when they overcompensate their CEO, but they are also more likely to decrease CEO overcompensation as a response. Our study contributes to the signaling literature by theorizing about signal incongruence, and to infomediary and corporate governance research by showing that media disapproval can lead to lower executive compensation. We also reconcile two conflicting views on firm prosocial behavior by showing that, in the presence of incongruent cues, philanthropy can simultaneously enhance and damage media evaluations of firms and CEOs. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the media as agents of external corporate governance for firms and open new avenues for research on executive compensation.

   https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3132772

 Session III
Discussant presentation 

Mazmanian, M., Orlikowski, W. J., & Yates, J. (2013). The Autonomy Paradox: The Implications of Mobile Email Devices for Knowledge Professionals. Organization Science, 24(5), 1337-1357

Mazmanian

Our research examines how knowledge professionals use mobile email devices to get their work done and the implications of such use for their autonomy to control the location, timing, and performance of work. We found that knowledge professionals using mobile email devices to manage their communication were enacting a norm of continual connectivity and accessibility that produced a number of contradictory outcomes. Although individual use of mobile email devices offered these professionals flexibility, peace of mind, and control over interactions in the short term, it also intensified collective expectations of their availability, escalating their engagement and thus reducing their ability to disconnect from work. Choosing to use their mobile email devices to work anywhere/anytime—actions they framed as evidence of their personal autonomy—the professionals were ending up using it everywhere/all the time, thus diminishing their autonomy in practice. This autonomy paradox reflected professionals’ ongoing navigation of the tension between their interests in personal autonomy on the one hand and their professional commitment to colleagues and clients on the other. We further found that this dynamic has important unintended consequences—reaffirming and challenging workers’ sense of themselves as autonomous and responsible professionals while also collectively shifting the norms of how work is and should be performed in the contemporary workplace.

   https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/10.1287/orsc.1120.0806

Dery, K., Kolb, D., & MacCormick, J. (2014). Working with Connective Flow: How Smartphone Use is Evolving in Practice. European Journal of Information Systems, 23(5), 558-570

Dery

Smartphones, those handheld devices that connect us via telephone and the Internet to virtually everyone and everything in the world, are becoming an integral part of everyday life. While there are significant individual and collective benefits from being more connected, there are also concerns associated with ‘always on’ work practices. This paper reports on a two-phase case study of smartphone users in a global financial services firm comparing the use of smartphones and their impact on work over time. We found that mobile communication technology practices have evolved within a relatively short (5-year) period of time as users seek to manage connectivity across work and non-work spaces. Disconnecting from work is no longer possible, nor desirable, for many users, who exercise choice (agency), switching between work and non-work interactions to regulate the connective flow across multiple connective media.

   https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/ejis.2014.13

 Session IV  

Ballantyne, D., & Nilsson, E. (2017). All that is Solid Melts into Air: The Servicescape in Digital Service Space. Journal of Services Marketing, 31(3), 226-235

Ballantyne

   www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JSM-03-2016-0115

Ailawadi, K. L., & Farris, P. W. (2017). Managing Mulit-And-Omni-Channel Distribution: Metrics and Research Directions. Journal of Retailing, 93(1), 120-135

Ailawadi

The increase in the variety of channel formats, and the progression from single, to multi-, then to omni-channel marketing has made shopping and buying more convenient for consumers, but trickier to manage for marketers—both upstream suppliers and downstream retailers. The first step in managing multi- and omni-channel distribution is to find the specific metrics that will facilitate reliable analysis of the relationship between distribution and marketing objectives. That is our primary goal in this article—to present the metrics, both old and new, that marketers, both suppliers and retailers, need to monitor, and that academic researchers, both theoretical and empirical, should incorporate in their models. We present a basic framework for managing distribution, and summarize the metrics that are relevant to each element of the framework. Then, we lay out what we believe are important questions that multi- and omni-channel marketers are grappling with, refer the reader to what existing academic research has to say about them, and suggest how future research can build off our framework and metrics to supplement what is known and address what is not.

   www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022435916300823

 Session V  

Zuboff, S. (2015). Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospect of an Information Civilization. Journal of Information Technology, 30(1), 75-89

Zuboff

This article describes an emergent logic of accumulation in the networked sphere, ‘surveillance capitalism,’ and considers its implications for ‘information civilization.’ The institutionalizing practices and operational assumptions of Google Inc. are the primary lens for this analysis as they are rendered in two recent articles authored by Google Chief Economist Hal Varian. Varian asserts four uses that follow from computer-mediated transactions: data extraction and analysis,’ ‘new contractual forms due to better monitoring,’ ‘personalization and customization, ’ and continuous experiments. ’ An examination of the nature and consequences of these uses sheds light on the implicit logic of surveillance capitalism and the global architecture of computer mediation upon which it depends. This architecture produces a distributed and largely uncontested new expression of power that I christen: Big Other. ’ It is constituted by unexpected and often illegible mechanisms of extraction, commodification, and control that effectively exile persons from their own behavior while producing new markets of behavioral prediction and modification. Surveillance capitalism challenges democratic norms and departs in key ways from the centuries-long evolution of market capitalism.

   https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1057/jit.2015.5

Newell, S., & Marabelli, M. (2015). Strategic Opportunities (and Challenges) of Algorithmic Decision-Making: A Call for Action on the Long-Term Societal Effects of 'Datafication'. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 24(1), 3-14

Newell

Today, digital data are captured through a variety of devices that have the ability to monitor the minutiae of an individual’s everyday life. These data are often processed by algorithms, which support (or drive) decisions (termed ‘algorithmic decision-making’ in this article). While the strategic value of these data (and subsequent analysis) for businesses is unquestionable, the implications for individuals and wider society are less clear. Therefore, in this Viewpoint article we aim to shed light on the tension between businesses – that increasingly profile customers and personalize products and services – and individuals, who, as McAfee and Brynjolfsson (2012, p. 5) suggest, are ‘walking data generators’ but are often unaware of how the data they produce are being used, and by whom and with what consequences. Issues associated with privacy, control and dependence arise, suggesting that social and ethical concerns related to the way business is strategically exploiting digitized technologies that increasingly support our everyday activities should be brought to the fore and thoughtfully discussed. In this article we aim to lay a foundation for this discussion in the IS community and beyond.

   www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963868715000025

 Session VI   

Hug, T. (2013). On the Medialization of Knowledge in the Digital Age. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(11), 22-35

Hug

It is widely accepted that media play an increasingly significant role in regard to processes of generating, transferring and passing on knowledge. The range of modes and ways by which the topic can be addressed is extremely broad: Knowledge is edited and secured in ontologies; knowledge media are developed and tested; knowledge workers provide contributions to the design of knowledge spaces; furthermore, knowledge is socially redistributed, reflected with a knowledge-political intention.
Beginning with a short reply to selected modelings of the digital turn, this paper compares and contrasts some current discourses on knowledge. It raises the question to which extent, for example, talking about knowledge media can be seen as part of the problem or part of the solution. Moreover, it discusses in what way the common metaphorical modes of expression are useful or misleading, and how concepts of medialization can be successfully applied to the development of knowledge.

   www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_11_June_2013/3.pdf

Grassmuck, V. (2012). The Sharing Turn: Why we are generally nice and have a good chance to cooperate our way out of the mess we have gotten ourselves into. In W. Sützl et al. (eds.), Media, Knowledge and Education: Cultures and Ethics of Sharing (pp. 17-34). Innsbruck: iup.

Grassmuck

After a period of neoliberal blind faith in the power of economic self-interest and of austerity to tackle its catastrophic effects, we are re-discovering our more pleasant sides. There is currently a surge of interest in sharing – in research in various developmental sciences, in popular debate and most of all in practice. This paper proposes that our society is undergoing a Sharing Turn that has its roots in human nature and in cultural history, is media-technologically enabled by networked computers and is fueled by the rising anger over societal systems that fail to serve the public in- terest. It attempts to set out some of the roots, diverse manifestations and dynamics of this paradigmatic shift, and it expresses hope that the ‘trending’ values of sharing and cooperating will change the world for the better.

   www.uibk.ac.at/iup/buch_pdfs/9783902811745.pdf

 Session VII  

Scott, S. V., & Orlikowski, W. J. (2012). Reconfiguring Relations of Accountability: Materialization of Social Media in the Travel Sector. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 37(1), 26-40

Scott

Expanding use of Web 2.0 technologies has generated complex information dynamics that are propelling organizations in unexpected directions, redrawing boundaries and shifting relationships. Using research on user-generated content, we examine online rating and ranking mechanisms and analyze how their performance reconfigures relations of account- ability. Our specific interest is in the use of so-called ‘‘social media’’ such as TripAdvisor, where participant reviews are used to rank the popularity of services provided by the travel sector. Although ranking mechanisms are not new, they become ‘‘power-charged’’—to use Donna Haraway’s term—when enacted through Web 2.0 technologies. As such, they per- form a substantial redistribution of accountability. We draw on data from an on-going field study of small businesses in a remote geographical area for whom TripAdvisor has changed ‘the rules of the game,’ and we explore the moral and strategic implication of this transformation.

   www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361368211001139

Kornberger, M., Pflueger, D., & Mouritsen, J. (2017). Evaluative Infrastructures: Accounting for Platform Organization. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 60, 79-95

Kornberger

Platform organizations such as Uber, eBay and Airbnb represent a growing disruptive phenomenon in contemporary capitalism, transforming economic organization, the nature of work, and the distribution of wealth. This paper investigates the accounting practices that underpin this new form of organizing, and in doing so confronts a significant challenge within the accounting literature: the need to escape what Hopwood (1996) describes as its “hierarchical consciousness”. In order to do so, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructure which describes accounting practices that enable platform based organization. They are evaluative because they deploy a plethora of interacting devices, including rankings, ratings, reviews, and audits to establish orders of worth. They are infrastructures because they provide the invisible yet essential mechanisms for the flow of economic activity and exchange on platforms. Illustrating the concept of evaluative infrastructure with the example of eBay, the paper's contribution is to (1) provide an analytical vocabulary to capture the accounting practices underpinning platforms as new organizational forms, and in so doing (2) extend accounting scholars' analytical focus from hierarchical settings towards heterarchies. Conceptually, this shift from management accounting to evaluative infrastructures entails a focus on relationality (evaluative infrastructures do not represent or reference but relate things, people and ideas with each other); generativity (evaluative infrastructures do not territorialize objects but disclose new worlds); and new forms of control (evaluative infrastructures are not centres of calculation; rather, control is radically distributed, whilst power remains centralized).

   www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361368217300351

 Session VIII  

Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2017). Consumer and Object Experience in the Internet of Things: An Assemblage Theory Approach. Journal of Consumer Research, 44(6), 1178-1204

Hoffman

The consumer Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to revolutionize consumer experience. Because consumers can actively interact with smart objects, the traditional, human-centric conceptualization of consumer experience as consumers’ internal subjective responses to branded objects may not be sufficient to conceptualize consumer experience in the IoT. Smart objects possess their own unique capacities and their own kinds of experiences in interaction with the consumer and each other. A conceptual framework based on assemblage theory and object-oriented ontology details how consumer experience and object experience emerge in the IoT. This conceptualization is anchored in the context of consumer-object assemblages, and defines consumer experience by its emergent properties, capacities, and agentic and communal roles expressed in interaction. Four specific consumer experience assemblages emerge: enabling experiences, comprising agentic self-extension and communal self-expansion, and constraining experiences, comprising agentic self-restriction and communal self-reduction. A parallel conceptualization of the construct of object experience argues that it can be accessed by consumers through object-oriented anthropomorphism, a nonhuman-centric approach to evaluating the expressive roles objects play in interaction. Directions for future research are derived, and consumer researchers are invited to join a dialogue about the important themes underlying our framework.

   https://academic.oup.com/jcr/article/44/6/1178/4371411

Klostermann, J., Plumeyer, A., Böger, D., & Decker, R. (2018). Extracting Brand Information from Social Networks: Integrating Image, Text, and Social Tagging Data. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 35(4), 538-556

Klostermann

Images are an essential feature of many social networking services, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. Through brand-related images, consumers communicate about brands with each other and link the brand with rich contextual and consumption experiences. However, previous articles in marketing research have concentrated on deriving brand information from textual user-generated content and have largely not considered brand-related images. The analysis of brand-related images yields at least two challenges. First, the content displayed in images is heterogeneous, and second, images rarely show what users think and feel in or about the situations displayed. To meet these challenges, this article presents a two-step approach that involves collecting, labeling, clustering, aggregating, mapping, and analyzing brand-related user-generated content. The collected data are brand-related images, caption texts, and social tags posted on Instagram. Clustering images labeled via Google Cloud Vision API enabled to identify heterogeneous contents (e.g. products) and contexts (e.g. situations) that consumers create content about. Aggregating and mapping the textual information for the resulting image clusters in the form of associative networks empowers marketers to derive meaningful insights by inferring what consumers think and feel about their brand regarding different contents and contexts.

   www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016781161830034X

 Session IX  

Eckhardt, G. M., & Bardhi, F. (2015). The Sharing Economy isn't about Sharing at all. Harvard Business Review, 28(01).

Eckhardt

The sharing economy has been widely hailed as a major growth sector, by sources ranging from Fortune magazine to President Obama. It has disrupted mature industries, such as hotels and automotives, by providing consumers with convenient and cost efficient access to resources without the financial, emotional, or social burdens of ownership. But the sharing economy isn’t really a “sharing” economy at all; it’s an access economy.

   https://hbr.org/2015/01/the-sharing-economy-isnt-about-sharing-at-all

Trenz, M., Frey, A., & Veit, D. (2018). Disentangling the Facets of Sharing: A Categorization of What we Know and don't Know about Sharing Economy. Internet Research, 28(4), 888-925

Trenz

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a categorization of sharing practices from a structured interdisciplinary literature review on the Sharing Economy. Instead of striving for a new definition, the authors distinguish nine types of sharing practices and provide an overview of prior investigations on sharing practices across three levels of analysis and 15 research areas. The structured analysis is translated into opportunities for future research on the Sharing Economy.

Design/methodology/approach: The study follows a structured literature review approach to uncover practices related to the Sharing Economy and similar phenomena. The authors analyze 210 articles from a broad number of disciplines, and develop a categorizing framework for Sharing Economy practices.

Findings: The paper identifies nine different types of sharing practices and provides a structured way for analyzing, comparing and positioning research on the Sharing Economy and related phenomena.

Research limitations/implications: The categorization of sharing practices and the embedded interdisciplinary overview of studies on the Sharing Economy help to explain potentially contradictory research results and uncovers opportunities for future research in the topic area.

Originality/value: Given the variety of disciplines dealing with the Sharing Economy and the plenitude of definitions and related concepts, the categorization and research overview provides a consolidated view of the knowledge in the topic area and an effective tool for identifying paths for future research.

   www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/IntR-11-2017-0441

 Session X  

McIntyre, D. P., & Srinivasan, A. (2017). Networks, Platforms, and Strategy: Emerging Views and Next Steps. Strategic Management Journal, 38(1), 141-160

McIntyre

Research summary: A substantial and burgeoning body of research has described the influence of platform-mediated networks in a wide variety of settings, whereby users and complementors desire compatibility on a common platform. In this review, we outline extant views of these dynamics from the industrial organization (IO) economics, technology management, and strategic management perspectives. Using this review as a foundation, we propose a future research agenda in this domain that focuses the on the relative influence of network effects and platform quality in competitive outcomes, drivers of indirect network effects, the nature and attributes of complementors, and leveraging complementor dynamics for competitive advantage.
Managerial summary: In many industries, such as social networks and video games, consumers place greater value on products with a large network of other users and a large variety of complementary products. Such “network effects” offer lucrative opportunities for firms that can leverage these dynamics to create dominant technology platforms. This article reviews current perspectives on network effects and the emergence of platforms, and offers several areas of future consideration for optimal strategies in these settings

   https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/smj.2596

Van Alstyne, M. W., Parker, G. G., & Choudary, S. P. (2016). Pipelines, Platforms, and the New Rules of Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 94(4), 54-62

Van Alstyne

Back in 2007 the five major mobile-phone manufacturers—Nokia, Samsung, Motorola, Sony Ericsson, and LG—collectively controlled 90% of the industry’s global profits. That year, Apple’s iPhone burst onto the scene and began gobbling up market share.

By 2015 the iPhone singlehandedly generated 92% of global profits, while all but one of the former incumbents made no profit at all.

How can we explain the iPhone’s rapid domination of its industry? And how can we explain its competitors’ free fall? Nokia and the others had classic strategic advantages that should have protected them: strong product differentiation, trusted brands, leading operating systems, excellent logistics, protective regulation, huge R&D budgets, and massive scale. For the most part, those firms looked stable, profitable, and well entrenched.

   https://hbr.org/2016/04/pipelines-platforms-and-the-new-rules-of-strategy

 Session XI  

Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), 211-236

Allcott

Following the 2016 US presidential election, many have expressed concern about the effects of false stories ("fake news"), circulated largely through social media. We discuss the economics of fake news and present new data on its consumption prior to the election. Drawing on web browsing data, archives of fact-checking websites, and results from a new online survey, we find: 1) social media was an important but not dominant source of election news, with 14 percent of Americans calling social media their "most important" source; 2) of the known false news stories that appeared in the three months before the election, those favoring Trump were shared a total of 30 million times on Facebook, while those favoring Clinton were shared 8 million times; 3) the average American adult saw on the order of one or perhaps several fake news stories in the months around the election, with just over half of those who recalled seeing them believing them; and 4) people are much more likely to believe stories that favor their preferred candidate, especially if they have ideologically segregated social media networks.

   www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/jep.31.2.211

Mebane Jr., W. R., Pineda, A., Woods, L., Klaver, J., Wu, P., & Miller, B. (2017, August). Using Twitter to Observe Election Incidents in the United States. Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.

Mebane

Individuals’ observations about election administration can be valuable to improve election performance, to help assess how well election forensics methods work, to address interesting behavioral questions and possibly to help establish the legitimacy of an election. In the United States such observations cannot be gathered through official channels. We use Twitter to extract observations of election incidents by individuals all across the United States throughout the 2016 election, including primaries, caucuses and the general election. To classify Tweets for relevance and by type of election incident, we use automated machine classification methods in an active learning framework. We demonstrate that for primary election day in one state (California), the distribution of types of incidents revealed by data developed from Twitter roughly matches the distribution of complaints called in to a hotline run on that day by the state. For the general election we develop hundreds of thousands of incident observations that occur at varying rates in different states, that vary over time and by type and that depend on state election and demographic conditions. Thousands of observations concern long lines, but even more celebrate successful performance of the election process—testimonies that ”I voted!” proliferate.

   www-personal.umich.edu/~wmebane/apsa17.pdf

 Session XII  

Gasevic, D., Dawson, S., & Siemens, G. (2015). Let's not forget: Learning Analytics are about Learning. Tech Trends, 59(1), 64-71.

Gasevic

The analysis of data collected from the interaction of users with educational and information technology has attracted much attention as a promising approach for advancing our understanding of the learning process. This promise motivated the emergence of the new research field, learning analytics, and its closely related discipline, educational data mining. This paper first introduces the field of learning analytics and outlines the lessons learned from well-known case studies in the research literature. The paper then identifies the critical topics that require immediate research attention for learning analytics to make a sustainable impact on the research and practice of learning and teaching. The paper concludes by discussing a growing set of issues that if unaddressed, could impede the future maturation of the field. The paper stresses that learning analytics are about learning. As such, the computational aspects of learning analytics must be well integrated within the existing educational research.

   https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11528-014-0822-x

Pardo, A, & Siemens, G. (2014). Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(3), 438-450. 

Pardo

The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as trust, accountability and transparency. In this paper, a set of principles is identified to narrow the scope of the discussion and point to pragmatic approaches to help design and research learning experiences where important ethical and privacy issues are considered.

   https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjet.12152

 Summary  

Summarizing discussion and outlook

 

Syllabus 2019

 

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