A Survey of Languages for Formalizing Mathematics

Cezary Kaliszyk, Florian Rabe

Intelligent Computer Mathematics (CICM 2020), LNCS 12236, pp. 138 – 156, 2020.


In order to work with mathematical content in computer systems, it is necessary to represent it in formal languages. Ideally, these are supported by tools that verify the correctness of the content, allow computing with it, and produce human-readable documents. These goals are challenging to combine and state-of-the-art tools typically have make difficult compromises. In this paper we discuss languages that have been created for this purpose, including logical languages of proof assistants and other formal systems, semi-formal languages, intermediate languages for exchanging mathematical knowledge, and language frameworks that allow building customized languages. We evaluate their advantages based on our experience in designing and applying languages and tools for formalizing mathematics. We reach the conclusion that no existing language is truly good enough yet and derive ideas for possible future improvements.


  PDF |    doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53518-6_9 | © Copyright Springer


author = {Cezary Kaliszyk and Florian Rabe},
title = {A Survey of Languages for Formalizing Mathematics},
booktitle = {Intelligent Computer Mathematics (CICM 2020)},
year = {2020},
series = {LNCS},
pages = {138--156},
url = {},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-53518-6_9},
publisher = {Springer, Cham},
volume = {12236},
editor = {Benzmueller C., Miller B.},
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