Soft Sediment Deformation

isoclinal slump folds in pelagic limestones truncated and sealed at top

Soft sediment deformation (SSD) is widespread in many sedimentary successions. Here some good examples of the main types of sediment deformation as discussed in Ortner (2007). The structures are ordered tentatively from early to late in relation to lithification of sediments.

Subsurface fluidization - primary sedimentary structures destroyed

Hydroplastic deformation - primary sedimentary structures preserved and deformed

Semi-brittle deformation