H. Kozur
Faunenprovinzen in der Trias und ihre Bedeutung für die Klärung der Paläogeographie

GPM 3, 8, p. 1–41

There were three faunal main provinces in the Triassic time: the northern boreal main province (Arctic Canada, northeastern British Columbia, Greenland, Spitzbergen, NE-Siberia), the southern boreal main province (New Zealand, ?western Australia) and the Tethyan main province between the northern and southern boreal main provinces. Biogenic carbonate rocks with megalodont bivalves and hermatypic corals are characteristic of Tethys. Such rocks and fossils are rare or absent in the northern and southern boreal main provinces as stated by TOZER (1971). There are great differences in the distribution of bethonic fossils and also some differences in the distribution of pelagic fossils between the Tethyan main province and the northern and southern boreal ones. The ammonoid genus Balatonites and the conodont multielement Gladigondolella tethydis, for instance, are restricted to the Tethyan main province, whereas the Parapopanoceratidae are restricted to the northern and southern boreal main provinces.
There were great differences between the Pacific and the Tethys. The Pacific was an ocean, but the Tethys was a shallow water sea with the dimensions of an ocean. Areas with psychrospheric conditions occur within the Tethys, but they were subordinate in comparison with the shallow water areas. Psychrospheric conditions change horizontally and vertically with shallow water environments in the Tethys. Almost all parts of the Tethys had a sialic crust.
The Triassic boreal main provinces and also the Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary ones are arranged circum polar to the recent rotation poles. Moreover, the boundaries of the main provinces was parallel, but asymmetric to the recent equator. These facts are not understandable in the view of plate tectonics and are contradictory to all extreme mobilistic theories to the global tectonics. The regional irregularities of the boundaries between the northern boreal main province and the Tethyan one indicate that the atmospheric circulation was very similar from the Permian up to today. This suggests similar positions of the oceans from the Permian up to today.
Within the Tethyan main province the Nevadian, Asiatic, Dinarian, Austroalpine, Westmediterranean, and German regional faunal provinces exist. The general development of the faunal provincialism within the Tethyan main province during the stages of Tri'assic time and the development of the conodont faunas in the separate regional faunal provinces of the Tethyan main province are discussed in detail. The following paleogeographic conclussions can be drawn from the faunal provincialism within the Tethyan main province:
1.) The Pacific Ocean existed also in the Triassic time.
2.) The Tethys was not an ocean as the recent oceans.
3.) A great sea (? Indian Ocean) existed in the Triassic time between western Australia and Madagascar.
4.) The Dinarian faunal province was closely connected with the Asiatic one.
5.) The faunal differences between the Dinarian and Austroalpine provinces suggest that the hitherto existing tectonic conceptions in the Alpine and Slovakian regions must be revised in some points.
6.) The German faunal province was connected from the Brahmanian up to the basal Olenekian with the boreal main province in the NW, from the higher part of the Lower Olenekian up to the Bithynian (sensu ASSERETO, in press) with the Asiatic province through the eastern border of
the Carpathians, in the Pelsonian and Lower Illyrian with the Austroalpine province through the Upper Silesian Gate, in the Upper Illyrian (?), Ladinian, and Cordevolian with the Westmediterranean province in the SW. Brakish water and euryhaline marine ostracodes immigrated in the Upper Illyrian and Ladinian from the Asiatic faunal province through the eastern border of the Carpathians and the northern ma rgin of the Black Sea. In the Julian and Tuvalian short marine ingressions came from SSW from the western part of the Austroalpine province and in the Norian from SE from the region of the Carpathian Keuper (eastern part of the Austroalpine province). In the uppermost Norian and Rhaetian a brackish water and marine connection was in the NW.
7.) The Westmediterranean faunal province had in the Ladinian and Cordevolian very close connections to the Nevadian and German faunal provinces.
8.) A great (? permanent) shallow water sea was in the Triassic between SW-Europe/NW-Africa and the northern Middle and southwestern North America and also between northern Europe and North America/Greenland. From there transgressions came during the Brahmanian, Jakutian, basal Olenekian, uppermost Norian, and Rhaetian through the North Sea in the German Basin and a strong faunal exchange took place through this sea(s) between the Westmediterranean and Nevadian faunal provinces at least in the Ladinian and Cordevolian. Therefore a Pangaea has not existed in the Triassic time.

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