Josef-Michael Schramm
Salzburg im geologischen Kartenbild – historisch und modern
Salzburg in geologic maps – historic and modern

Geo.Alp Sonderband 1/Special volume 1, 2007, p. 111–134

Geologic maps are substantial results of geoscientific research and reveal valuable insights into the cultural heritage of a region. Salzburg – as the youngest but one Federal State in the Republic of Austria – is well represented in geologic maps today. Diametrically to the spatial surface cover, however, historical gaps stand, particularly since the cultural heritage "geologic map" had to suffer irreplaceable losses attendant of military conflicts. On the basis of Salzburg’s geoscientific map stock it is to be stated that two world wars of 20th century caused smaller cuts, than Napoleon’s wars and the end of Salzburg’s independence (1803). The geopolitical confusions at the beginning of the 19th century (before Viennese Congress' peace order) led to the probably largest and most sustainable cultural loss of Salzburg. Today large parts of this cultural heritage are trackable therefore only outside of Salzburg in libraries, archives and collections of Paris, Munich, Florence, Berlin and Vienna. After the secularization of the religious Principality of Salzburg the University of Salzburg was dissolved 1810 and reestablished only in 1962.
During the "pioneer era of geologic mapping" Salzburg's territories have been investigated only marginally, e.g. in the maps of Mathias von Flurl (1792), Christian Keferstein (1821) or Ami Boué (1829). Scientific authorship of the first surface covering geologic map of Salzburg is attributed to Leopold von Buch, who visited and researched the archbishopric of Salzburg together with his friend Alexander von Humboldt 1797/1798. The copper engraving of sheet Salzburg was later manufactured in 1809, and published 1826 at some remote period. 155 years after von Buch's map Peter Beck-Mannagetta compiled the hitherto extended geological knowledge in a similarly scaled outline map of Austria in 1964. Supported by an old mining industry's tradition in the Duchy of Salzburg and numerous detailed information the geologic survey could progress during the Austro-Hungarian monarchy’s era rapidly above average (1849 foundation of Austrian Empire's Geological Survey at Vienna). Starting from outline mapping (e.g. Wilhelm von Haidinger, Franz von Hauer, Adolphe Charles von Morlot, Carl Wilhelm von Gümbel, Franz Foetterle, last but not least Hermann Vetters) the scientific community immediately focussed their attention toward Salzburg's geologic key positions of the Alps, for example the Hallstätter zone and the Tauern window, implicating comprehensive detail studies.
The further steps of development took place evenly distributed into the present. Colleagues of Austria's Geological Survey (e.g. Edmund von Mojsisovics, Georg Geyer, Otto Ampferer, Theodor Ohnesorge, Gustav Götzinger, Hans Peter Cornelius, Sigmund Prey, Benno Plöchinger), their foreign co-workers (e.g. Heinrich Prinzinger, Eberhard Fugger, Walter Del-Negro) and in addition, the research personnel of Austrian and foreign universities as well as their students (complete citation of names would break an abstract’s extent) in the context of their academic training have substantial portion of this geologic mapping work. Project-related – usually applied (e.g. deep construction, traffic line and power plant construction, mineral raw and building material supply, water supply) – studies with large-scale detailed maps complement Salzburg's geologic map stock. Considering the geoscientific information flood of the recent past Gerhard Pestal & Ewald Hejl 2005 compiled a "Geological map of Salzburg", at a scale 1:200.000.

Die vorliegende Studie bietet einen Überblick über geologische Kartierungen und Karten des Bundeslandes Salzburg. In der "reich an armen Lagerstätten" von Bodenschätzen versehenen Region existieren zahlreiche Detailaufzeichnungen über einzelne Gewinnungsstätten, etwa ab dem Zeitraum Spätmittelalter/Frühneuzeit. Eine geologische Durchforschung Salzburgs begann etwa Mitte bis Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts, hingegen trugen die napoleonischen Kriege bei, die ersten geologischen Übersichtsdarstellungen um Jahrzehnte zu verzögern. Mit der 1849 gegründeten Geologischen Reichsanstalt erfolgte ein systematischer Aufschwung an geologischen Landeskenntnissen, sodass Salzburg heute durch geologische Karten gut repräsentiert ist.

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