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Wastl, M. and Stötter, J. (1999). Neue Ergebnisse zur holozänen Landschafts- und Klimageschichte Nordislands. Norden, 13, 181-195.

The period since the mid-19th century, when instrumental meteorological recording first started in Iceland, has shown climate conditions close to, or even at, both Holocene pessimum and optimum levels. The 19th century part of the Little Ice Age represents a thermal minimum, whilst the warmest decades of the 20th century are close to the estimated Holocene thermal maximum. A model describing sea-ice - climate - glacier relationships in Northern Iceland for this period has been developed, providing a basis for quantitative palaeoclimatic reconstructions for the Holocene as a whole.
Radiometrically and tephrochronologically dated glacier advances mark climatic minima of the post-Preboreal Holocene, when conditions were comparable to the extremes in the second half of the 19th century. Some of these glacier advance periods coincide with depressions of the upper limit of tree/shrub birch in Northern Iceland. Compared to optimal Holocene thermal conditions, with temperatures at least as high as in the 1930s, the range of Holocene temperature variation was ca. 3 K. This was accompanied by a doubling in precipitation from the thermal minima to the maxima.
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