Slavery in English Literature

 

Timeline - Slavery

1494            Treaty divides the Atlantic world between Portugal (Africa, Asia, Brazil) and Spain (the rest of the New World).

1702-1713    War of the Spanish Succession.

1713            Treaty of Utrecht: Britain gains all of St Kitts and Asiento grant to import

                   slaves into Spanish America.

1756-63        Seven Years War. Britain gains Dominica, Grenada, St Vincent and Tobago.

1759            William Wilberforce, the abolitionist, is born in Hull.

1760            Thomas Clarkson, the abolitionist, is born.

1770s          The abolitionist campaigner Granville Sharpe collects evidence showing that slavery is incompatible with English Law.

1772            The Somerset decision is popularly interpreted as outlawing slavery in England.

1772-73        John Stedman joins a military expedition to suppress a slave rebellion in Surinam, South America and is appalled by the inhumanity shown to Africans. In 1796 he publishes a full

                   account of his experiences that becomes a classic of abolitionist literature.

1775-83        American War of Independence. France seizes Grenada, Tobago and St Kitts from Britain but retains only Tobago after the Peace of Versailles.

1778             The House of Commons appoints a committee to investigate the state of the slave trade.

                    The Knight vs Wedderburn legal case in Edinburgh rules that enslavement is incompatible with Scots law.

1779             Granville Sharp tries to persuade Anglican bishops to oppose the slave trade.

1783             British Quakers form two committees to work against the slave trade, one an informal publicity group and the other an official committee of London Meeting for Sufferings. An official Quaker 

                    petition to end the slave trade is presented to Parliament; the Quakers print over 10,000 copies of The Case of Our Fellow Creatures, The Oppressed Africans, which are personally distributed

                  among men of influence. Granville Sharp helps publicize the facts of the Zong case, in which 133 blacks had been thrown overboard at sea.

1784           James Ramsay publishes his influential Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves; both Ramsay and Sharp cooperate with Quaker abolitionists.

1786           Thomas Clarkson publishes An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, which in 1785 had won a prize at Cambridge University.

1787           The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed; the Society is really an extension of the unofficial Quaker slave-trade committee; Clarkson travels to collect evidence for the 

                  Society.

                  Sierra Leone established as settlement for freed slaves.

1788           The London Society helps to organize a national petition campaign against the slave trade. Parliament passes a law regulating the conditions of the slave trade. The Privy Council Committee for

                  Trade and Plantations conducts an enquiry into British commercial relations with Africa. Provincial abolition societies organize.

                   In response to growing concern about conditions in the 'Middle Passage' the Dolben Act limits the number of enslaved people a ship is permitted to carry. Even with these restrictions,

                   conditions remain dreadful.

1789            In Parliament, William Wilberforce introduces twelve resolutions against the slave trade, a subject eloquently debated in the Commons; despite a flood of petitions, the Commons insist on

                   hearing further evidence, after which it turns to other matters.

                   Olaudah Equiano’s The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African is published.

                   The French Revolution begins in July. Its ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity spark discontent in the slave colonies.

1790            A Select Committee of the House of Commons examines witnesses on the slave trade.

1791            The Commons continues to examnie witnesses and to debate the slave trade, but rejects a motion by Wilberforce to introduce an abolition bill. Parliament grants a charter to the Sierra Leone

                   Company, which for four years has been promoting the colonization of British free Negroes in Africa. The Company commits itself to oppose the slave trade.

1792            After much oratory, the Commons votes to terminate the slave trade in 1796, but the bill fails to win assent in the House of Lords, which adopts tactics of delay. A popular movement to boycott

                   slave-grown sugar gains momentum, but domestic political conflict and repressive reaction begin to weaken the antislavery movement, especially in towns like Manchester. The Sierra Leone

                   Company sends off a further fleet to Africa, carrying black refugees from the American Revolution, many of whom had first been taken to Nova Sotia.

1793            Upper Canada enacts a gradual emancipation law. In the House of Commons, Wilberforce now loses by eight votes on a motion to introduce a slave-trade abolition bill. The Commons also

                   rejects a bill outlawing the British slave trade to foreign markets. There is a marked decline in popular antislavery zeal and in the Abolition Committee’s funds.

1794            France abolishes slavery and frees all enslaved people in her colonies. Legislation is passed by US Congress to prevent US vessels being used in the slave trade.

1796            Wilberforce’s bill for the abolition of the slave trade is defeated by four votes in the House of Commons which in 1795 had rejected his motion by a wide margin.

                   Napoleon seizes power in France and soon restores slavery in the French colonies.

1797            Parliament accepts proposals from Charles Rose Ellis, representing the planter interest, that the crown recommend to the colonial legislatures measures that would encourage a natural

                   increase in slaves and thus eventually render the slave trade unnecessary.

1803-15       Napoleonic Wars between Britain and France. Vienna Settlement confirms British control of St. Lucia, Tobago and the Guiana colonies.

1804           A revival of anti-slave-trade agitation occurs. A bill for abolition, proposed by Wilberforce, is passed by the House of Commons, but William Pitt’s cabinet postpones debate in the House of

                  Lords, arguing that there is not sufficient time to hear evidence.

                  On January 1, St. Domingue is declared the republic of Haiti, the first independent black state outside Africa.

1805           The House of Commons defeats a bill proposed by Wilberforce for abolishing the slave trade. Pitt issues an Order-in-Council stopping the African slave trade to foreign colonies conquered by

                  Britain, and restricting the annual introduction of any slaves to those colonies to 3 per cent of the existing slave populations.

1806           January: Pitt’s death leads to the Ministry of All the Talents, and to secret government collaboration with the abolitionists. Parliament passes a law ending the British slave trade to foreign

                  countries as well as to captured or ceded colonies. Parliament also overwhelmingly approves a resolution by Charles James Fox that the entire slave trade should be abolished but no immediate

                  action follows.

                  October: Death of Charles James Fox.

1807           January 2nd: Lord Grenville presents a bill abolishing the slave trade in the House of Lords

                  January 4th: Four counsels are heard against the bill

                  January 5th: the debate commences – in favour of Lord Grenville 100, against it 36, bill passed that the African slave trade should cease

                  February 10th: Bill is carried to the House of Commons

                  February 20th: Counsel is heard against it

                  February 23rd: Lord Viscount Howick’s (Earl Gray) eloquent speech in which he highlights how little the slave trade contributed to the wealth of the nation [fifty-fourth part of the export trade]: for 

                  the question 283 vs. 16 against it

                  March 6th: Sir C. Pole advocates that the year 1812 be substituted for the year 1807 as the time when the trade should be abolished. On a division, 125 against the amendment, for it 17. The bill

                  enacted, that no vessel should clear out for slaves from any port within the British dominions after May 1st 1807, and that no slave should be landed in the colonies after March 1st 1808

                  March 16th: Bill is read a third time; it is passed without a division

                  March 18th: Bill is carried to the Lords

                  March 23rd: House of Lords meet; Lord Grenville brought the bill forward; it is adopted without a division; bill receives last sanction of the Peers; sent back to the Commons

                  March 24th: Taken into consideration and agreed; carried back to the Lords

                  March 25th: 11 am Royal Assent obtained

                  A Proposal by Earl Percy for gradual emancipation in the colonies is defeated and is disavowed by the abolitionists. The African Institution is formed as an organization to seek enforcement of 

                  the abolition law as well as to further the civilization of Africa and the development of markets for commodities other than slaves. The government of Sierra Leone is transferred to the crown, after

                  considerable controversy over the private Sierra Leone Company’s management.

1808           Thomas Clarkson publishes his two-volume History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament.

                  The British West Africa Squadron is established at Sierra Leone to suppress any illegal slave trading by British citizens. Between 1810-65, nearly 150,000 people are freed by anti-slavery

                  squadrons.

1810           Britain negotiates with Portugal for the abolition of the South Atlantic slave trade.

1811           A law is passed making participation in the slave trade a felony.

1812           A British Order-in-Council requires that Trinidad, captured from Spain in 1797 and denied a legislature of its own, set up a registry of slaves to help detect illegal importations.

1814           Public pressure mounts in Great Britain to force France to abolish the slave trade, after the first Treaty of Paris sanctions a five-year postponement of French abolition. Other maritime nations

                  either abolish the slavce trade or make commitments to Britain.

1815           At the Congress of Vienna, British statesmen secure an abstract declaration condemning the slave trade. In Parliament, British abolitionists move for a law requiring a centralized registration of

                  all West Indian slaves, a plan that provokes heated controversy.

1817           A treaty is signed with Portugal prohibiting the slave trade north of the equator but sanctioning the Portuguese-Barzilian trade south of the line. A treaty is also signed with Spain prohibiting the

                  trade north of the equator and providing for total abolition in 1820. Britain agrees to pay a fixed sum as compensation for Spain’s expected financial losses.

                  Slave Registration Act forces all slave owners to provide a list of all the enslaved people they own every two years.

1818           Britain fails at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle to secure international agreement on the right of search.

1819           Parliament passes a compromise measure for the registration of colonial slaves, but it falls far short of abolitionist demands. Courts of mixed commission are set up at Sierra Leone to

                  adjudicate cases involving captured slave ships.

                  British establish Royal Navy anti-slave trade squadron off West Africa.

1820           US law makes slave trading a crime equal to piracy, punishable by death.

1822           The Congress of Verona marks the final failure of British attempts to win sanction for an international maritime police to suppress the slave trade. Diplomatic pressure now focuses on Brazil,

                  which declares her independence from Portugal and is thus free from previous treaty obligations. British abolitionists begin to turn their attention to West Indian emancipation, and plan organized

                  action to secure total though gradual abolition of slavery.

1823           The Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery is organized. The Commons approves George Canning’s resolutions for the amelioration of colonial slavery, and the government

                   recommends specific reforms to colonial governors.

1832            The Great Reform Act introduces new Members of Parliament from groups who are more likely to oppose slavery.

1833            Abolition of Slavery Act – Britain abolishes slavery and provides for the emancipation of enslaved people in the British West Indies, to take effect in August 1834. The Act declares that the

                   former enslaved people must serve a period of apprenticeship before receiving full emancipation. Originally this period was set at six years, but it was later reduced to four.

                   William Wilberforce dies on 29 July, three days after the bill to emancipate enslaved people is passed.

1834            Slavery replaced by apprenticeship in British colonies.

1838            Full freedom granted in British colonies.

1839            A group of 49 enslaved Africans on board the slave ship Amistad revolt off the coast of Cuba. The ship lands at New London, USA, where the Africans are taken into custody. American

                   abolitionists take up their cause and in March 1841 the Supreme Court upholds their freedom.

 

 

Sources:

Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution 1770-1823. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, 1975.

Walvin, James. Atlas of Slavery. Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2006.

Samson, Jane, ed. The British Empire. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001.

Transatlantic Slave Trade <www.nmm.ac.uk/freedom/viewTheme.cfm/theme/timeline>.

The Online Library of Liberty. “Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament, 1808.” <oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/Book.php?recordID=0591.02>

 

 

Works:

Thomas Day and John Bicknell, The Dying Negro, a Poetical epistle (1733)

Mary Barber, “On Seeing the Captives lately redeem’d from Barbary by His Majesty” (1734)

 

Mrs Weddell, Incle and Yarico (1742)

Elizabeth Rowe, “Letters and Moral Entertaining” (1756)

 

Briton Hammon, A Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings and Surprising Deliverance of Briton Hammon, a Negro Man (1760)

James Grainger, An Essay on the more common West Indian Diseases, and the remedies which that country itself produces. To which are added some hints on the management of the negroes (1764)

Sarah Scott, The History of Sir George Ellison (1766)

James Grainger, Considerations on slavery: In a letter to a friend (1767)

Isaac Bickerstaff, The Padlock (1768)

Extract from a representation of the injustice and dangerous tendency of tolerating slavery, or admitting the least claim of private property in the persons of men in England(1769)

 

Richard Cumberland: The West Indian: A Comedy (1770)

Thomas Bedford: The origin of our grievances: a sermon (1770)

Thomas Chatterton, Heccar and Gaira (1770)

James Beattie: An Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth (1770)

Edward Long, History of Jamaica (1771)

Samuel Foote: The Devil Upon Two Sticks (1768) / Nabob (1772)

Edward Long, Candid reflections upon the judgement lately awarded by the Court of King's Bench: in Westminster-Hall, on what is commonly called the negroe-cause, by a planter  (1772)

Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, A Narrative of the Remarkable Particulars in the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, An African Prince, related by himself (1772)

Anthony Benezet, Some historical account of Guinea: its situation, produce and the general disposition of its inhabitants (1772)

Phyllis Wheatley, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773)

Hester Chapone, Letters on the Improvement of the Mind (1773)

Granville Sharp, An essay on slavery: proving from Scripture its inconsistency with humanity and religion; in answer to a late publication, entitled, "The African trade for Negro slaves shewn to be consistent with principles of humanity, and with the laws of revealed religion." (1773)

John Wesley: Thoughts upon Slavery (1774)

Mary Scott, The Female Advocate: a poem occasioned by reading Mr. Duncombe’s Feminead (1774)

 

Henry Bate: The Black-a-moor Wash’ed White (1776)

Henry Nelson Mackenzie: Julia de Roubigné (1777)

Bryan Edwards, The Negro's dying speech on his being executed for rebellion in the island of Jamaica (1777)

John Reinhold Forster, Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World...(1778)

Henry Home Kames, Lord, 'Preliminary Discourse, Concerning the Origin of Men and of Languages' from Sketches of the History of Man (1779)

 

Anthony Benezet, Notes on the slave trade (1781)

Mary Deverell, “On Reading the Poems of Phillis Wheatley” (1781)

Ignatius Sancho, The Letters of the late Ignatius Sancho (1782)

Thomas Day, The History of Sandford and Merton, 2 vol. (1783)

Hugh Mulligan, The Lovers, an African eclogue (1784)

A Negro's address on the apparition of slavery (1784)

James Ramsay,   An Inquiry in to the Effects of Putting a Stop to the African Slave Trade (1784)

James Ramsay, An Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies (1784)

John Marrant, An Outline of the Lord's Wonderful Dealings with John Marrant (1785)

Thomas Clarkson, An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species (1786)

Dorothy Kilner: The Rotchfords: or, the friendly counsellor: designed for the instruction and amusement of the youth of both sexes  (1786)

Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Hymns in prose for Children (1786)

William Roscoe: “The Wrongs of Africa” (1787)

Anonymous, The Adventures of Jonathan Corncob (1787)

Eliza Knipe, Atomboka and Omaza: an African Story (1787)

Edward Rushton, West Indian Eclogues (1787)

Ottobah Cugoano, Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species (1787)

Samuel Stanhope Smith, An Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion in the Human Species (1787)

Robert Boucher Nickolls, Letter to the Treasurer of the Society for the Purpose of Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1787)

Thomas Cooper, Letters on the Slave Trade (1787)

[William Roscoe], A General View of the African Slave-Trade (1788)

James Field Stanfield, Observations on a Guinea Voyage (1788)

Maria and Harriet Falconar: “Poems on Slavery” (1788)

William Cowper, 'The Negro's Complaint', 'Pity For Poor Africans', 'The Morning Dream', 'Sweet Meat Has Sour Sauce' (1788)

Robert Merry, The Slaves, an elegy (1788)

Helen Maria Williams, A Poem on the bill lately passed for regulating the slave trade (1788)

Hannah More, Slavery: A Poem (1788)

Thomas Clarkson, An Essay on the Impolicy of the Slave-Trade (1788)

Ann Yearsley, A poem on the inhumanity of the slave-trade (1788)

John Newton, Thoughts on the African Slave Trade (1788)

Alexander Falconbridge, Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa (1788)

William Beckford, Jnr, Remarks Upon the Situation of Negroes in Jamaica, impartically made from a local experience of nearly thirteen years in that Island (1788)

Raymond Harris, Scriptual Researches on the licititness of the Slave Trade, shewing its conformity with the principles of natural and revealed religion (1788)

Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789)

The Speeches of Mr Wilberforce on a Motion for the Abolition of the Slave Trade in the House of Commons, May the 12th, 1789 (1789)

Thomas Cochrane, Answers to the Fifth Table of Queries (1789)

Thomas Clarkson, The Substance of the Evidence of Sundry Persons on the Slave Trade (1789)

A Planter, Commercial Reasons for the Non-Abolition of the Slave Trade, in the West-India Islands, by a Planter and Merchant of many Years Residence in the West-Indies (1789)

[Gilbert Francklyn], Observations, Occasioned by the Attempts made in England to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1789)

Day, Thomas. The history of Sandford and Merton : a work intended for the use of children: in two volumes. (1789)

Thomas Bellamy, The Benevolent Planters (1789)

William Blake, “The Little Black Boy” (1789)

Evidence with respect to carrying Slaves to the West Indies (1789)   
Parliamentary Inquiry into the Treatment of Slaves in the West Indies - Jamacia (1789)

Georges Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (1789)

 

Bryan Edwards, A Speech delivered at a Free Conference between the Honorable Council and Assembly of Jamaica... On the Subject of Mr. Wilberforce's Propositions in the House of Commons, concerning the Slave Trade (1790)

J B Holroyd, Earl of Sheffield, Observations on the Project for Abolishing the Slave Trade (1790)

William Knox, A Letter from W K Esq To W Wilberforce, Esq (1790)

Mariana Starke, The Sword of Peace; or A Voyage of Love (1790)

Memoirs and opinions of Mr. Blenfield  (1790)

Charles Dunster, “St. James's Street” (1790)

Elizabeth Bentley, “On the Abolition of the African Slave Trade, July 1789” (1791)

“On Health and Liberty” (1791)

Beckford, William. A Descriptive Account of the Island of Jamaica, with Remarks Upon the Cultivation of the Sugar-Cane, Throughout the Different Seasons of the Year, and Chiefly Considered in a Picturesque Point of View; Also, Observations and Reflections Upon What Would Probably Be the Consequences of an Abolition of the Slave-Trade, and of the Emancipation of the Slaves (1790)

Stedman, J. G. Narrative of a Five Years’ Expedition against the revolted negroes of Surinam, in Guiana, on the wild coast of South America, from the year 1772 to 1777…by Capt. J. G: Stedman (1790)

Cooper, Thomas. Considerations on the Slave Trade and the Consumption of West India Produce (1791)

William Combe: The devil upon two sticks in England: being a continuation of 'Le diable boiteaux' of Le Sage (1791)

[William Fox], An Address to the People of Great Britain, on the Utility of Refraining from West India Sugar and Rum (1791)

Use of West India Sugar and Rum (1791)

James Boswell, No Abolition of Slavery; or the universal empire of love: a poem (1791)

Anna Maria Mackenzie: Slavery; or, The Times (1792)

Thomas Taylor: A Vindication of the Rights of Brutes (1792)

Robert Bage:   Man as he is: a novel ; in 4 vol. (1792)

Anna Letitia Barbauld, "Epistle to William Wilberforce, Esq. On the rejection of the bill for abolishing the slave trade" (1792)

Robert Burns, The Slave's Lament (1792)

Anonymous. Remarkable Extracts and Observations on the Slave Trade with Some Considerations on the Consumption of West India Produce (1792)

[Capt. Macarty], An Appeal to the Candour and Justice of the People of England in Behalf of the West India Merchants and Planters (1792)

Edmund Burke, Sketch of the Negro Code (1792)

Charlotte Smith, Desmond (1792)

Mary Birkett, A poem on the African slave trade Part I (1792)

William Macready: The Irishman in London: or, the happy African (1793)

JaneWest: The advantages of education; or the history of Maria Williams. A tale for very young ladies(1793)

Debates on the expediency of cultivating sugar in the territories of the East India Company. (1793)

William Roscoe and James Currie, The African (1793)

Gentleman's Magazine, "The African's Complaint on-board a slave ship" (1793)

Helen Maria Williams, Letters from France (1794)

William Lisle Bowles, The African (1794)

Anna Laetitia Barbauld, The Master and the Slave (1792-96)

Elizabeth Helme, Duncan and Peggy: a Scottish Tale (1794)

Elizabeth Inchbald, Nature and Art(1794)

The Works of the Late Professor Camper, on the Connexion between the Science of anatomy and the Arts of Drawing, Painting, Statuary &c in two books (1794)

J.F. Blumenbach, De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa, 3rd ed., Göttingen, 1775/1781/1795 (1865)

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 'On the Slave Trade', Issue 4 of The Watchman (1795)

Anna Maria Falconbridge, Two Voyages to the River Sierra Leone, During the Years 1791-1793 (1795)

Hannah More, The Sorrows of Yamba, or the Negro Woman's Lamentation (1795)

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Fragment from the Greek 'Ode on the Slave Trade’ (1796)

Elizabeth Helme, The Farmer of Inglewood Forest: a novel in 4 volumes. (1796)

Bryan Edwards, The Proceedings of the Governor and Assembly of Jamaica in regard to the Maroon Negroes (1796)

Zachary Macaulay, The African Prince (1796)

William Shepherd, The Negro Incantation (1797)

The Courier, Ode: The Insurrection of the Slaves at St. Domingo (1797)

Elizabeth Sophia Tomlins, “The Slave” (1797)

Robert Southey, Poems concerning the slave trade (1797-1810)

Mary Stockdale, “Fidèlle” (1798)

Henry Summersett, Aberford: a Novel; or What You Will (1798)

Johann Blumenbach, “Concepts of race in the eighteenth century”: Vol. 5. (1798)

George Thompson, A sentimental tour, collected from a variety of occurrences, from Newbiggin, near Penrith, Cumberland, to London, ... and from London, to Newbiggin, ... By G. Thompson (1798)

M.G. Lewis: “Tales of Terror” (1799)

Walter Scott: “An Apology for Tales of Terror” (1799)

William Godwin: St. Leon: A Tale of the Sixteenth Century (1799)

Mariana Starke: The Widow of Malabar: a tragedy, as it is performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden (1799)

Hannah More: The Black prince: a true story; being an account of the life and death of Naimbanna, an African king's son, who arrived in England in the year 1791, and set sail on his return in June 1793 (1799)

Charles White, An Account of the Regular Gradations in Man, and indifferent Animals and Vegetables; and from the former to the latter. (1799)

 

William Earle, Obi or the History of Three-Fingered Jack (1800)

Charlotte Smith, The Letters of a Solitary Wanderer (1800)

Charles Macpherson, Memoirs of Charles Macpherson (1800)

Mary Robinson, The Negro Girl (1800)

M.G. Lewis: The East Indian: A Comedy (1800)

                         Tales of Wonder (1800)

                         Castle Spectre (1797)

HelenaWells: Constantia Neville; or, the West Indian. A novel in 3 vol.(1800)

Report from the Committee of the Honourable House of [the Jamaican] Assembly (1800)

John Thelwall: The daughter of adoption: a tale of modern times  (1801)

Bryan Edwards, Historical Survey of St. Domingo, with an account of the Maroon Negroes, a history of the war in the West Indies, 1793-94 (1801)

 

Maria Edgeworth, The Grateful Negro (1802)

William Cobbett, Cobbett's Annual Register, London (1802)

William Cobbett, 'Slave Trade' in the Annual Register (1802)

Henry Brougham, An inquiry into the colonial policy of the European powers (1803)

R. Dallas, History of the Maroons, from their origin to the establishment of their chief tribe at Sierra Leone: including the expedition to Cuba, for the purpose of procuring Spanish chasseurs, and the state of the Island of Jamaica for the last ten years, with a succinct history of the island previous to that period (1803)

William Wordsworth, “The Banished Negroes” (1803)

William Wordsworth, “To Toussaint L'Ouverture” (1803)

Thomas M Winterbottom, Account of the Native African in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone (1803)
[David Collins], Practical Rules for the Management and Medical Treatment of Negro Slaves, in the Sugar Colonies (1803)

 

Robert Bisse: The History of the Negro Slave Trade (1805)

Ann Taylor, “The Little Negro” (1806)

Mary Darby Robinson, “The Negro Child” (1806)

                                       “The Progress of Liberty” (1806)

                                       “Captivity: A Poem” (1791)

Robert Renny, An History of Jamaica (1807)

Zimao, theAfrican  (1807)

William Wordsworth, To Thomas Clarkson, on the Final Passing of the Bill for the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1807)

Mercator, Letters Concerning the Abolition of the Slave-Trade and Other West-India Affairs (1807)

William Fox, An Address to the People of Great Britain on the Utility of Refraining from the

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 'Review of Clarkson's History of the Slave Trade' (1808)
Amelia Alderson Opie, “The Lucayan’s Song” (1808)

John Fawcett, Obi; or Three-finger'd Jack (1809)

Mary Lamb, Conquest of Prejudice (1809)

 

James Montgomery: “The West Indies, and Other Poems” (1810)

George Colman, the Younger, The Africans; or War, Love and Duty (1811)

George Dyer, On Considering the unsettled state of Europe, and the opposition which has been made to attempts for the abolition of the slave-trade (1812)

William Lisle Bowles: “The Missionary” (1813)

James Cowles Prichard, Researches into the Physical History of Mankind (1813)

John Thelwall, The Negro's Prayer (1814)

 

John Jea, The Life, History and Sufferings of John Jea, the African Preacher (1815)

Thomas Morton, The Slave, A Musical Drama in three acts (1816)

Barbara Hoole Hofland, Matilda; or, the Barbadoes Girl (1816)

John Wolcot, Azid; Of the Song of the Captive Negro (1816)

Thomas Haynes Bayly: Parliamentary Letters, and other Poems (1818)

Bryan Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies (5th ed. 5 vols.) (1819)

 

Sir William Jones, 'On the Origin and Families of Nations', delivered 23 February, 1792 by The President (1821)

Mary Sherwood, Dazee, or the Re-Captured Negro (1821)

James Townley: High life below stairs: a farce(1822)

T. Fletcher. Letters in Vindication of the Rights of the British West India Colonies (1822)

J. Cropper. Letters to William Wilberforce, M.P., recommending the encouragement of the cultivation of sugar in our dominions in the East Indies, as the natural and certain means of effecting the total and general abolition of the Slave Trade (1822)

Sir William Lawrence, Lectures on Physiology, Zoology, and the Natural History of Man (1823)

William Wilberforce, An Appeal to the Religion, Justice and Humanity of the Inhabitants of the British Empire (1823)

Thomas Clarkson, Thoughts on the Necessity for Improving the Conditions of the Slaves in the British Colonies, with a view to their ultimate emancipation; and on the practicability, the safety and advantages of the latter measure (1823)

Anonymous, Memorandum on the Relative Importance of the West and East Indies to Great Britain (1823)

J. B. Seely, A Few Hints to the West Indians on their Present Claims to Exclusive Favour and Protection at the Expense of the East India Interests (1823)

Z. Macaulay, East and West India Sugar; or a Refutation of the Claims of the West India Colonists to a Protecting Duty on East India Sugar (1823)

J. Cropper, A Letter addressed to the Liverpool Society for promoting the abolition of Slavery, on the injurious effects of high prices of produce, and the beneficial effects of lowprices, on the condition of slaves (1823)

Thomas Pringle, “Slavery”   (1823)

Rev. John Hampden, A B, A Commentary on Mr. Clarkson's pamphlet, Thoughts on the Necessity of Improving the Condition of the Slaves in the British Colonies, with a view to their ultimate emancipation (1824)

The Speech of the Rt. Hon. George Canning in the House of Commons on the 16th day of March 1824 (1824)

Robert Wedderburn, The Horrors of Slavery (1824)

The Trial of Robert Wedderburn for Blasphemy (1824)

William Thompson, and Anna Wheeler, “Appeal to One Half the Human Race, Woman, Against the Pretensions of the Other Half, Men, To Retain Them in Political, and Thence in Civil and Domestic, Slavery. (1825)

James Stephen, England Enslaved by Her Own Colonies: An Address to the Electors and People of the United Kingdom (1826)

Amelia Opie: “The Negro Boy’s Tale” (1824)

Anna Laetitia Barbauld, “Sins of Government, Sins of the Nation; or a Discourse for the Fast, appointed on April 19, 1793” (1825)

Henry Brougham: Thoughts on Negro Slavery (1826)

Amelia Opie, The Black Man's Lament; or, how to make sugar (1826)

Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, The System: a Tale of the West Indies (1827)

Thomas Southey, Chronological History of the West Indies (1827)

W. Naish, Reasons for Using East India Sugar (1828)

 

Mary Prince, The History of Mary Prince (1831)

Henry Nelson Coleridge, Six Months in the West Indies in 1825 (1832)

Letetia E Landon, The African Prince (1832)

J. E. Alexander, Transatlantic Sketches, comprising visits to the most interesting scenes in North and South America and the West Indies. With notes on negro slavery and Canadian emigration (1833)

William Stanley Roscoe, The Ethiop (1834)

Lewis, Matthew Gregory. Journal of a West India Proprietor. Kept During a Residence in the Island of Jamaica. (1834)

Bernard Martin Senior, (published anonymously) Jamaica as it was, as it is and as it may be comprising… an authentic narrative of the Negro Insurrection in 1831…by a Retired Military Officer (1835)

Josiah Conder, “The Last Night of Slavery” (1837)

Baron-Wilson, Cornwell, Mrs. The Life and Correspondence of M. G. Lewis, with Many Pieces in Prose and Verse, never before Published. London: H. Colburn, 1839.

George Cuvier, Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, Arranged According to its Organization forming the basis for a Natural History of Animals, translated and edited by William S Orr (1840)

 

James Montgomery, The West Indies (1850)

D. Turnbull, The Jamaica Movement, for promoting the enforcement of the Slave-Trade Treaties, and the Suppression of the Slave Trade (1850)

James Grahame, To England on the Slave Trade (1856)

Mary Seacole, The Wonderful Adventures of Mary Seacole in Many Lands (1857)

 

 

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